Editors view affiliations Bernhard M. Riegl Sam J. Front Matter Pages i-x. Pages Environmental Constraints for Reef Building in the Gulf. Purkis, Bernhard M. Bernhard M. Riegl, Sam J. Purkis, Ashraf S. Riegl, Andrew W. Reef Fish and Fisheries in the Gulf. David A. Feary, John A. Burt, Georgenes H. Cavalcante, Andrew G. John A. Burt, Aaron Bartholomew, David A. The Octocoral Fauna of the Gulf.
Ashraf S. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from and had an average growth rate of 1. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0. This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay.
It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth. Corvianawatie, Corry, E-mail: corvianawatie students. Dark production of extracellular superoxide by the coral Porites astreoides and representative symbionts. Full Text Available The reactive oxygen species ROS superoxide has been implicated in both beneficial and detrimental processes in coral biology, ranging from pathogenic disease resistance to coral bleaching.
Despite the critical role of ROS in coral health, there is a distinct lack of ROS measurements and thus an incomplete understanding of underpinning ROS sources and production mechanisms within coral systems. Here, we quantified in situ extracellular superoxide concentrations at the surfaces of aquaria-hosted Porites astreoides during a diel cycle. These results indicate that the coral holobiont produces extracellular superoxide in the dark, independent of photosynthesis.
As a short-lived anion at physiological pH, superoxide has a limited ability to cross intact biological membranes. Further, removing surface mucus layers from the P. We therefore attribute external superoxide derived from the coral holobiont under these conditions to the activity of the coral host epithelium, rather than mucus-derived epibionts or internal sources such as endosymbionts e.
However, endosymbionts likely contribute to internal ROS levels via extracellular superoxide production. Indeed, common coral symbionts, including multiple strains of Symbiodinium clades A to D and the bacterium Endozoicomonas montiporae LMG , produced extracellular superoxide in the dark and at low light levels.
Further, representative P. Overall, these results indicate that healthy, non-stressed P. Metagenomic analysis indicates that stressors induce production of herpes-like viruses in the coral Porites compressa. Vega Thurber, Rebecca L. During the last several decades corals have been in decline and at least one-third of all coral species are now threatened with extinction. Coral disease has been a major contributor to this threat, but little is known about the responsible pathogens. To date most research has focused on bacterial and fungal diseases; however, viruses may also be important for coral health.
Using a combination of empirical viral metagenomics and real-time PCR, we show that Porites compressa corals contain a s A snapshot of a coral "holobiont": a transcriptome assembly of the scleractinian coral , porites , captures a wide variety of genes from both the host and symbiotic zooxanthellae. Massive scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific, and they are more resistant to thermal stress than other stony corals , such as the genus Acropora.
Because coral health and survival largely depend on the interaction between a coral host and its symbionts, it is important to understand the molecular interactions of an entire " coral holobiont". We simultaneously sequenced transcriptomes of Porites australiensis and its symbionts using the Illumina Hiseq platform. We obtained We successfully distinguished contigs originating from the host Porites and the symbiont Symbiodinium by aligning nucleotide sequences with the decoded Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum genomes.
Conserved protein domain and KEGG analyses showed that the dataset contains broad gene repertoires of both Porites and Symbiodinium. Effective utilization of sequence reads revealed that the polymorphism rate in P. Analyses of amino acid biosynthetic pathways suggested that this Porites holobiont is probably able to synthesize most of the common amino acids and that Symbiodinium is potentially able to provide essential amino acids to its host. We believe this to be the first molecular evidence of complementarity in amino acid metabolism between coral hosts and their symbionts.
We successfully assembled genes originating from both the host coral and the symbiotic Symbiodinium to create a snapshot of the coral holobiont transcriptome. This dataset will facilitate a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of coral symbioses. Full Text Available Massive scleractinian corals of the genus Porites are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific, and they are more resistant to thermal stress than other stony corals , such as the genus Acropora.
This dataset will facilitate a deeper understanding of molecular mechanisms of. Full Text Available Mesophotic coral ecosystems between m may be important refugia habitat for coral reefs and associated benthic communities from climate change and coastal development.
However, reduced light at mesophotic depths may present an energetic challenge to the successful reproduction of light-dependent coral organisms, and limit this refugia potential. Here, the relationship of depth and fecundity was investigated in a brooding depth-generalist scleractinian coral , Porites astreoides from m in the U.
Despite a trend of increasing planulae production with depth, no significant differences were found in mean peak planulae density between shallow, mid-depth and mesophotic sites. Differential planulae production over depth is thus controlled by P. These results suggest that mesophotic ecosystems are reproductive refuge for P. Surviving coral bleaching events: porites growth anomalies on the Great Barrier Reef.
In this study, we assessed if signatures of these major thermal stress events were recorded in the growth characteristics of massive Porites colonies. In a suite of short bleaching. Sites included inshore Nelly Bay, Pandora Reef , annually affected by freshwater flood events, midshelf Rib Reef , only occasionally affected by freshwater floods and offshore Myrmidon Reef locations primarily exposed to open ocean conditions.
Annual growth characteristics extension, density and calcification were measured in cores from 79 coral colonies and analysed over the common year period, Visual examination of the annual density bands revealed growth hiatuses associated with the bleaching years in the form of abrupt decreases in annual linear extension rates, high density stress bands and partial mortality.
These results highlight the spatial variation of mass bleaching events and that all reef locations within the GBR were not equally stressed by the and mass bleaching events, as some models tend to suggest, which enabled recovery of calcification on the GBR within 4 years.
The dynamics in annual calcification rates and recovery displayed here should be used to improve model outputs that project how coral calcification will respond to ongoing warming of the tropical oceans. Stable mucus-associated bacterial communities in bleached and healthy corals of Porites lobata from the Arabian Seas. Coral reefs are subject to coral bleaching manifested by the loss of endosymbiotic algae from coral host tissue.
Besides algae, corals associate with bacteria. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral health, but their role in coral bleaching is unknown. We found that bacterial community structure was notably similar in bleached and healthy corals , and the most abundant bacterial taxa were identical.
However, fine-scale differences in bacterial community composition between the PAG and RS were present and aligned with predicted differences in sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling processes. Based on our data, we argue that bleached corals benefit from the stable composition of mucus bacteria that resemble their healthy coral counterparts and presumably provide a conserved suite of protective functions, but monitoring of post-bleaching survival is needed to further confirm this assumption.
Conversely, fine-scale site-specific differences highlight flexibility of the bacterial microbiome that may underlie adjustment to local environmental conditions and contribute to the widespread success of Porites lobata. Pink-line syndrome, a physiological crisis in the scleractinian coral Porites lutea.
Therefore, in order to stop the photosynthetic processes in the cyanobacterial cells, the photosynthetic inhibitor, The host is induced to produce defense enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase Macrobioerosion in Porites corals in subtropical northern South China Sea: a limiting factor for high-latitude reef framework development. Bioerosion is an important limiting factor in carbonate accretion and reef framework development; however, few studies have quantified the direct impact of macroborers on high-latitude coral communities, which are viewed as potential refuge during a period of global warming.
In this study, internal macrobioerosion of Porites corals was examined at Daya Bay, subtropical northern South China Sea. The principal borers were the bivalve Lithophaga spp. Porites corals were heavily bioeroded in areas impacted by aquacultural and urban activities High levels of bioerosion, especially boring bivalve infestation, significantly weaken the corals and increase their susceptibility to dislodgement and fragmentation in typhoons, limiting accumulation of limestone framework.
This study implies that carbonate accretion and reef development for high-latitude coral communities may be limited in future high-CO2 and eutrophication-stressed environments. The potential of the coral species Porites astreoides as a paleoclimate archive for the Tropical South Atlantic Ocean. The investigated geochemical proxies Comparative demography of two common scleractinian corals : Orbicella annularis and Porites astreoides.
Full Text Available Background Studies directed at understanding the demography and population dynamics of corals are relatively scarce. This limits our understanding of both the dynamics of coral populations and our capacity to develop management and conservation initiatives directed at conserving such ecosystems. Methods From to , we collected data on the growth, survival, and recruitment rates of two common Caribbean coral species, the stress-tolerant Orbicella annularis and the weedy Porites astreoides.
The model was parameterized by following the fate of colonies of each species at the two sites for two years. Results Our data indicate that spatial variability in vital rates of both species was higher than temporal variability. During the first year, populations of O. Populations of P. Our results suggest that location rather than time is important for the resiliency in coral colonies. Also, P. No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.
The expanse of deep water between the central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world's most potent marine biogeographic barrier. Results indicated that P. Within the central Pacific, Hawaiian populations were strongly isolated from three co-occurring clusters found throughout the remainder of the central Pacific. No further substructure was evident in the ETP. Changes in oceanographic conditions during ENSO over the past several thousand years thus appear insufficient to support larval deliveries from the central Pacific to the ETP or strong postsettlement selection acts on ETP settlers from the central Pacific.
Recovery of P. Using a combination of empirical viral metagenomics and real-time PCR, we show that Porites compressa corals contain a suite of eukaryotic viruses, many related to the Herpesviridae. This coral -associated viral consortium was found to shift in response to abiotic stressors. In particular, when exposed to reduced pH, elevated nutrients, and thermal stress, the abundance of herpes-like viral sequences rapidly increased in 2 separate experiments.
Herpes-like viral sequences were rarely detected in apparently healthy corals , but were abundant in a majority of stressed samples. In addition, surveys of the Nematostella and Hydra genomic projects demonstrate that even distantly related Cnidarians contain numerous herpes-like viral genes, likely as a result of latent or endogenous viral infection. These data support the hypotheses that corals experience viral infections, which are exacerbated by stress, and that herpes-like viruses are common in Cnidarians.
Lithium in the aragonite skeletons of massive Porites corals : A new tool to reconstruct tropical sea surface temperatures. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for the Li content of coral aragonite to record information about environmental conditions, but no detailed study of tropical corals exists.
Here we present the Li and Mg to Ca ratios at a bimonthly to monthly resolution over 25 years in two modern Porites corals , the genus most often used for paleoclimate reconstructions in the tropical Indo-Pacific. The corals responded differently under elevated pCO2.
Zooxanthellae cell density, cell mitotic index, and photosynthesis rate of P. At the end of the experiment, P. Photosynthetic pigments in the remaining zooxanthellae algae increased from 1. At the end of the experiment, G. Increase pCO2 in the atmosphere may affect species diversity of coral reefs. Submarine groundwater discharge SGD constitutes a large percentage of the freshwater inputs onto coastal coral reefs on high islands such as the Hawaiian Islands, although the impact of SGD on coral reef health is currently understudied.
In Maunalua Bay, on Oahu, Hawaii, SGD is discharged onto shallow reef flats from discrete seeps, creating natural gradients of water chemistry across the reef flat. We used this system to investigate rates of growth of the lobe coral Porites lobata across a gradient of SGD influence at two study sites within the bay, and to characterize the variation in water chemistry gradient over space and time due to SGD. Coral nubbins were placed across the gradient for 6 months, and growth was measured using three metrics: surface area photo analysis , buoyant weight, and linear extension.
Various chemical parameters, including pH, salinity, total alkalinity, nutrients, and chlorphyll were sampled at the same locations across the gradient over 24 hour periods in the spring and fall in order to capture spatial and temporal variation in water chemistry due to the SGD plume. Spatial patterns and temporal variation in water chemistry were correlated with the observed spatial patterns in coral growth across the SGD gradient.
However,recent studies indicated that additional environmental or biological factors can influence the incorporation of Ba into coral skeletons. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals. Full Text Available Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait s that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching.
Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon DOC as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months.
Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral -mediated DOC were measured via 13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months.
Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. In addition, corals were fed either zero, low, medium, or high concentrations of brine shrimp. This latter response may be a consequence of photoinhibition.
This result highlights the potential influence of nutrients from heterotrophically acquired carbon in maintaining the zooxanthellae-host symbiosis in balance. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.
Full Text Available Growth anomalies GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification.
Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size.
These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases growth anomalies found on different host genera Acropora vs. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.
Aeby, Greta S. Growth anomalies GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. Reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral , Porites astreoides, from shallow to mesophotic zones.
Early life history traits of brooding corals are often affected by the environmental conditions experienced by parental colonies. Such parental effects can impact offspring survival, which influences the overall success of a population as well as resilience to environmental challenges.
This study examines the reproductive ecology and early life history traits of the brooding coral Porites astreoides across a depth gradient in Bermuda. Fecundity, larval size, larval Symbiodinium density, and settlement success, as well as post-metamorphic juvenile survival, growth, and Symbiodinium density were compared across three reef sites representing an inshore patch reef m , an offshore rim reef m , and an upper-mesophotic reef m.
Although fecundity did not differ across sites, larvae produced by colonies on the patch reef site were smaller, had lower Symbiodinium densities, and had lower rates of settlement and juvenile survival compared to larvae from colonies on the rim and upper-mesophotic reef sites. Larvae produced by colonies from the rim and upper-mesophotic sites did not differ in size or Symbiodinium densities; however, rates of settlement, growth, and survival were higher for larvae from the upper-mesophotic site compared to those from the rim reef site.
These results indicate that offspring quality and success vary among sites with differing environmental conditions and may imply higher recruitment potential and resilience for upper-mesophotic corals. Therefore, this paper presents monthly resolution geochemical records covering the period obtained from a Porites coral recovered from the SCS to test the reliability of this method. Physical and chemical characteristics of Vietnamese natural corals used as substitutes for bone grafts.
Coral has been used as substitutes for bone grafts in France and the United State of American. Among the studies are the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of natural coral blocks obtained by the scientists of the NhaTrang Maritime Institute. We found that it was quite necessary to establish a standard formula for processing coral as biomaterial graft. The selected coral was cut into blocks approximately 1x1x1 cm or 1x1x2 cm and cleaned.
We measured the density, porous rate, water loading speed at room temperature and at boiled temperature with low pressure, mechanical strength and content of soluble protein, chitosan in coral rods. The density of Porites australiensis was heavier than that of Porites lutea. But, Porites lutea has more porous rate than Porites australiensis. This experiment has also showed that mechanical strength of Porites australiensis was harder than that of Porites lutea.
To measure the water loading speed, the coral rods were treated at boiled temperature with low pressure versus at room temperature. We found that the water loading speed of Porites australiensis at boiled temperature was faster than that at room temperature. Porites lutea and Montastrea annuligera showed as the same result. We measured the content of soluble protein by both Lowry and Biuret methods, the content of soluble protein after washing with 0.
Our study determined some physical and chemical characteristics. Heavy metal contents in growth bands of Porites corals : Record of anthropogenic and human developments from the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes in the coastal region of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba, concentrations of six metals were traced through variations in 5 years growth bands sections of recent Porties coral skeleton.
X-radiography showed annual growth band patterns extending back to the year Baseline metal concentrations in Porites corals were established using 35 years-long metal record from late Holocene coral deposited in pristine environment and coral from reef that is least exposed to pollution in the marine reserve in the Gulf of Aqaba.
All metal profiles except Fe and Zn recorded the same metal signature from recent coral in which low steady baseline levels were displayed in growth bands older than , similar to those obtained from fossil and unpolluted corals.
This date represents the beginning of a period that witnessed increasing coastal activities, constructions and urbanization. This has produced a significant reduction in coral skeletal extension rates. Results from this study strongly suggest that Porites corals have a high tendency to accumulate heavy metals in their skeletons and therefore can serve as proxy tools to monitor and record environmental pollution bioindicators in the Gulf of Aqaba. Al-Rousan, Saber A. Box , Aqaba Jordan ], E-mail: s.
Coral Cores for selected locations in the Pacific Ocean obtained to determine calcification and extension rates of Porites spp. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laboratory experiments reveal calcification and extension rates of corals are strongly correlated to seawater aragonite saturation state.
Predictions of reduced Early development of zooxanthella-containing eggs of the corals Porites cylindrica and Montipora digitata: The endodermal localization of zooxanthellae. We studied the early development of zooxanthellae-containing eggs of the scleractinian corals Porites cylindrica and Montipora digitata to elucidate how zooxanthellae become localized to the endoderm of planulae during the course of development.
In both species, zooxanthellae were distributed evenly in the oocytes and delivered almost equally to the blastomeres during cleavage. Thus, zooxanthellae were restricted to the endodermal cells at the gastrula or early planula stage in P. Zooxanthellae were present in both endodermal and ectodermal cells of early planulae, but they disappeared from the ectoderm as the planulae matured. In our previous study on two species of Pocillopora, we found that zooxanthellae were localized in eggs as well as in embryos, and that blastomeres containing zooxanthellae later dropped into the blastocoel to become restricted to the endoderm Hirose et al.
The timing and mechanism of zooxanthella localization and types of gastrulation differed among species belonging to the three genera. Short-term and latent post-settlement effects associated with elevated temperature and oxidative stress on larvae from the coral Porites astreoides.
Coral reefs across the Caribbean are undergoing unprecedented rates of decline in coral cover during the last three decades, and coral recruitment is one potential process that could aid the recovery of coral populations. To better understand the effects of climate change on coral larval ecology, the larvae of Porites astreoides were studied to determine the immediate and post-settlement effects of elevated temperature and associated oxidative stress.
The addition of micromolar concentrations of hydrogen peroxide did not impact respiration or photochemical efficiency. Short-term larval survival and settlement and metamorphosis were not affected by increased temperature or the H2O2 treatment. These results show that short-term exposure to some stressors might have small impacts on coral physiology, and no effects on larval survival, settlement and metamorphosis.
However, due to post-settlement mortality, these stressors can cause a significant reduction in coral recruitment. In particular, bacteria residing in the surface mucus layer are thought to mediate coral. Composition and biological activities of the aqueous extracts of three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean: Pseudodiploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea.
Scleractinian corals stony corals are the most abundant reef-forming cnidarians found in coral reefs throughout the world. Despite their abundance and ecological importance, information about the diversity of their toxins and their biological activities is very scarce. In this study, the chemical composition and the biological activities of the aqueous extracts of Pseudodiploria strigosa , Porites astreoides and Siderastrea siderea , three scleractinian corals from the Mexican Caribbean, have been assessed for the first time.
Toxicity of the extracts was assessed in crickets; the presence of cytolysins was detected by the hemolysis assay; the vasoconstrictor activity was determined by the isolated rat aortic ring assay; the nociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test. The presence of phospholipases A 2 PLA 2 , serine proteases, and hyaluronidases was determined by enzymatic methods. Low-molecular-weight fractions were obtained by gel filtration chromatography and ultrafiltration.
Extracts from the three species were toxic to crickets, induced hemolysis in human and rat erythrocytes, produced vasoconstriction on isolated rat aortic rings, and presented phospholipase A 2 and serine-protease activity. Despite the fact that these corals are not considered to be harmless to humans, the extracts generated significant nociceptive responses.
These fractions were toxic to crickets and two of them induced a transitory vasoconstrictor effect on isolated rat aortic rings. This study suggests that scleractinian corals produce low-molecular-weight peptides that are lethal to crickets and induce vasoconstriction. Full Text Available The isolated Isla del Coco experiences periodic, extreme disturbances which devastate coral reefs surrounding the island. Scleractinian corals build the physical structure of the reef therefore ecosystem recovery relies on coral species recovery.
Coral recruits can be of sexual or asexual origin, and the relative success of the two recruit types influences the speed and spread of recovery processes. Here we focus on the massive coral , Porites lobata, because it is the main reef-builder around Isla del Coco to describe the relative contribution of asexual and sexual recruits to population maintenance.
The relationship between the ratio of strontium to calcium and sea-surface temperature in a modern Porites astreoides coral : Implications for using P. This empirically determined relationship has been used to reconstruct past sea-surface temperature SST from modern and Holocene age coral archives. A study was conducted to investigate this relationship for Porites astreoides to determine the potential for using these corals as a paleotemperature archive in the Caribbean and western tropical Atlantic Ocean.
Skeletal aragonite from a P. Effects of seawater pCO2 and temperature on calcification and productivity in the coral genus Porites spp. Understanding how rising seawater pCO2 and temperatures impact coral aragonite accretion is essential for predicting the future of reef ecosystems. Increasing seawater temperature enhanced calcification in almost all corals , but the magnitude of this effect was seawater pCO2 dependent.
The rate increase at high seawater pCO2 exceeds that observed in inorganic aragonites. Increases in seawater temperature, below the thermal stress threshold, may mitigate against ocean acidification in this coral genus, but this moderation is not mediated by an increase in net photosynthesis. The response of coral calcification to temperature cannot be explained by symbiont productivity or by thermodynamic and kinetic influences on aragonite formation.
Franzisket L Coral growth: buoyant weight technique. Coral Reefs : Research Methods. Paris, France With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not Environmental controls of coral growth: Data driven multi-scale analyses of rates and patterns of growth in massive Porites corals around the Thai-Malay Peninsula.
Scleractinian corals produce large amounts of calcium carbonate as they grow, sustaining the three-dimensional reef framework that supports the high productivity and biodiversity associated with tropical coral reefs. The rate of skeletal growth of corals is therefore not only essential for their. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.
Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral -associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue.
However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased DD corals , and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae.
In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.
Looking at the metabolite profile of an organism provides insights into the metabolomic state of a cell and hence also into pathways employed. Little is known about the metabolites produced by corals and their algal symbionts. In particular, corals from the central Red Sea are understudied, but interesting study objects, as they live in one of the warmest and most saline environments and can provide clues as to the adjustment of corals to environmental change.
In this study, we applied gas chromatography — mass spectrometry GC—MS metabolite profiling to analyze the metabolic profile of four coral species and their associated symbionts: Fungia granulosa, Acropora hemprichii, Porites lutea , and Pocillopora verrucosa. We identified and quantified compounds among primary and secondary metabolites across all samples. Comparing across species, 28 metabolites were exclusively present in algae, while 38 were exclusive to corals. A principal component and cluster analyses revealed that metabolite profiles clustered between corals and algae, but each species harbored a distinct catalog of metabolites.
The major classes of compounds were carbohydrates and amino acids. Taken together, this study provides a first description of metabolites of Red Sea corals and their associated symbionts. As expected, the metabolites of coral hosts differ from their algal symbionts, but each host and algal species harbor a unique set of metabolites. This corroborates that host-symbiont species pairs display a fine-tuned complementary metabolism that provide insights into the specific nature of the symbiosis.
Our analysis also revealed aquatic pollutants, which suggests that metabolite profiling might be used for monitoring pollution levels and assessing. Dynamics of coral -associated microbiomes during a thermal bleaching event. Coral -associated microorganisms play an important role in their host fitness and survival.
More recently, the shifts in coral -associated bacterial profiles were also shown to be linked to the patterns of coral heat tolerance. Here, we investigated the dynamics of Porites lutea -associated bacterial and algal communities throughout a natural bleaching event, using full-length 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences ITS obtained from PacBio circular consensus sequencing. We provided evidence of significant changes in the structure and diversity of coral -associated microbiomes during thermal stress.
The balance of the symbiosis shifted from a predominant association between corals and Gammaproteobacteria to a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria and to a lesser extent Betaproteobacteria following the bleaching event. On the contrary, the composition and diversity of Symbiodinium communities remained unaltered throughout the bleaching event.
The shifts in the structure and diversity of associated bacterial communities may contribute more to the survival of the coral holobiont under heat stress. The effects of habitat on coral bleaching responses in Kenya. This study examines the bleaching responses of scleractinian corals at four sites in Kenya Kanamai, Vipingo, Mombasa and Nyali representing two distinct lagoon habitats relatively shallow and relatively deep. Bleaching incidence was monitored for the whole coral community, while zooxanthellae densities and chlorophyll levels were monitored for target species Pocillopora damicornis, Porites lutea , and Porites cylindrica during a non-bleaching year and a year of mild-bleaching Differences in bleaching responses between habitats were observed, with shallower sites Kanamai and Vipingo exhibiting lower bleaching incidence than deeper sites Nyali and Mombasa.
In deeper sites that did exhibit higher bleaching Mombasa and Nyali , it was found that coral recovery occurred more quickly in the protected area than in the non-protected area. Niche acclimatization in Red Sea corals is dependent on flexibility of host-symbiont association.
Knowledge of host-symbiont specificity and acclimatization capacity of corals is crucial for understanding implications of environmental change. Whilst some corals have been shown to associate with a number of symbionts that may comprise different physiologies, most corals associate with only one dominant Symbiodinium species at a time.
Coral communities in the Red Sea thrive under large fluctuations of environmental conditions, but the degree and mechanisms of coral acclimatization are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the potential for niche acclimatization in 2 dominant corals from the central Red Sea, Pocillopora verrucosa and Porites lutea , in relation to the fidelity of the underlying coral -symbiont association.
Repeated sampling over 2 seasons along a cross-shelf and depth gradient revealed a stable symbiont association in P. A statistical biological-environmental matching routine revealed that the high plasticity of photophysiology and photopigments in the stable Symbiodinium microadriaticum type A1 community in P. In contrast, photophysiology and pigments were less variable within each symbiont type from P.
Based on these data, we advocate an extended concept of phenotypic plasticity of the coral holobiont, in which the scleractinian host either associates with a specific Symbiodinium type with a broad physiological tolerance, or the host-symbiont pairing is more flexible to accommodate for different symbiont associations, each adapted to specific environmental settings.
Radiocarbon and stable isotopes in Palmyra corals during the past century. Druffel-Rodriguez, Kevin C. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease across corals and oceans indicates a conserved and distinct disease microbiome. Coral diseases are characterized by microbial community shifts in coral mucus and tissue, but causes and consequences of these changes are vaguely understood due to the complexity and dynamics of coral -associated bacteria.
We used 16S rRNA gene microarrays to assay differences in bacterial assemblages of healthy and diseased colonies displaying White Plague Disease WPD signs from two closely related Caribbean coral species, Orbicella faveolata and Orbicella franksi. Analysis of differentially abundant operational taxonomic units OTUs revealed strong differences between healthy and diseased specimens, but not between coral species. A subsequent comparison to data from two Indo-Pacific coral species Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea revealed distinct microbial community patterns associated with ocean basin, coral species and health state.
Coral species were clearly separated by site, but also, the relatedness of the underlying bacterial community structures resembled the phylogenetic relationship of the coral hosts. In diseased samples, bacterial richness increased and putatively opportunistic bacteria were consistently more abundant highlighting the role of opportunistic conditions in structuring microbial community patterns during disease. Our comparative analysis shows that it is possible to derive conserved bacterial footprints of diseased coral holobionts that might help in identifying key bacterial species related to the underlying etiopathology.
Furthermore, our data demonstrate that similar-appearing disease phenotypes produce microbial community patterns that are consistent over coral species and oceans, irrespective of the putative underlying pathogen. Consequently, profiling coral diseases by microbial community structure over multiple coral species might allow the development of a comparative disease framework that can inform on cause and relatedness of coral diseases.
Symbiodinium spp. Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Abrupt sea surface pH change at the end of the Younger Dryas in the central sub-equatorial Pacific inferred from boron isotope abundance in corals Porites. The boron concentration [B] and isotopic composition of modern samples indicate that the temperature strongly controls the partition coefficient KD for different aragonite species.
Most ancient sea surface pH reconstructions near Marquesas are higher than modern values. These values range between 8. At the end of the Younger Dryas Corals in the genus Porites are among the major framework builders of reef structures worldwide, yet the genus has been challenging to study due to a lack of informative molecular markers. The gene arrangement of P. This mitochondrial genome contributes essential data to work towards a better understanding of evolutionary relationships within Porites.
Occurrence of live corals in close vicinity of nuclear power plant, Tarapur, Maharashtra, India. There has been world-wide concern over ecosystem health around nuclear power plants due to the release of warm water effluent into marine environment. The Tarapur atomic power station has been running for last four decades yet the live corals were encountered at intertidal area within the 8 km radius of power plant. The prima facie data recorded on coral belongs to three different species, i.
The density of corals was determined through line transect intersect method by employing a 1 m 2 quadrant at every 10 m interval. Among the different physico-chemical parameters, surface water temperature The organic carbon content of sediment was in the range of 0. During the present study, it was observed that the impact of warm water effluent is local and it got decreased with increase in distance. It was also observed that the coral colonies were affected due to conventional fishing activities beyond 3 km of nuclear power plant.
Dissepiments, density bands and signatures of thermal stress in Porites skeletons. The skeletons of many reef-building corals are accreted with rhythmic structural patterns that serve as valuable sclerochronometers. Annual high- and low-density band couplets, visible in X-radiographs or computed tomography scans, are used to construct age models for paleoclimate reconstructions and to track variability in coral growth over time. In some corals , discrete, anomalously high-density bands, called "stress bands," preserve information about coral bleaching.
However, the mechanisms underlying the formation of coral skeletal density banding remain unclear. Dissepiments—thin, horizontal sheets of calcium carbonate accreted by the coral to support the living polyp—play a key role in the upward growth of the colony. Here, we first conducted a vital staining experiment to test whether dissepiments were accreted with lunar periodicity in Porites coral skeleton, as previously hypothesized.
Over 6, 15, and 21 months, dissepiments consistently formed in a ratio to the number of full moons elapsed over each study period. We measured dissepiment spacing to reconstruct multiple years of monthly skeletal extension rates in two Porites colonies from Palmyra Atoll and in another from Palau that bleached in under anomalously high sea temperatures. Spacing between successive dissepiments exhibited strong seasonality in corals containing annual density bands, with narrow wide spacing associated with high low density, respectively.
A high-density "stress band" accreted during the bleaching event was associated with anomalously low dissepiment spacing and missed dissepiments, implying that thermal stress disrupts skeletal extension. Our study verifies the lunar periodicity of dissepiments, provides a mechanistic basis for the formation of annual density bands in Porites , and reveals the. Corallite skeletal morphological variation in Hawaiian Porites lobata. Due to their high morphological plasticity and complex evolutionary history, the species boundaries of many reef-building corals are poorly understood.
The skeletal structures of corals have traditionally been used for species identification, but these structures can be highly variable, and currently we lack knowledge regarding the extent of morphological variation within species. Porites species are notorious for their taxonomic difficulties, both morphologically and genetically, and currently there are several unresolved species complexes in the Pacific.
Despite its ubiquitous presence and broad use in coral research, Porites lobata belongs to one such unresolved species complex. To understand the degree of intraspecific variation in skeletal morphology, corallites from the Hawaiian P. A subset of samples from two genetically differentiated populations from contrasting high- and low-stress environments in Maunalua Bay, Hawaii, were then quantitatively analyzed using multivariate morphometrics.
Our observations revealed high intraspecific variation in corallite morphology, as well as significant morphological differences between the two populations of P. Additionally, significant correlation was found between the morphological and genetic distances calculated from approximately 18, loci generated from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing.
The unique morphological characters observed from the genetically differentiated population under environmental stress suggest that these characters may have adaptive values, but how such traits relate to fitness and how much plasticity they can exhibit remain to be determined by future studies.
Relatively simple morphometric analyses used in our study can be useful in clarifying the existing ambiguity in skeletal architecture, thus contributing to resolving species issues in corals. Monsoon signatures in recent corals from the Laccadive Islands.
X-radiographs of the coral Porites sp. The results reveal annual density variations as well New triterpenoids from Gentiana lutea. Three new triterpenoids, 2,3-secooxoursenoic acid, 2,3-secooxooleanenoic acid, and betulin 3-O-palmitate, have been isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana lutea , together with five known ones. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods.
Coral samples grew at 5 m depth at Longwan Bay. Monthly measurements of the SST from to were taken at Qinglan Bay adjacent to the place of the collected samples. Using the thermometer, the SST in the past hundred years with monthly resolution will be reconstructed and the climatic change in the northern area of South China Sea will be hind cast.
Seaweed- coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience. Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal- coral pairings are poorly investigated.
We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal- coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected.
Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae.
Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal- coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand.
As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals. Initial colonization, erosion and accretion of coral substrate. Blocks cut from Porites lutea were laid on the fore reef slope, reef flat and a lagoonal patch reef at Lizard Island, in the Northern Great Barrier Reef, and replicates removed from each environment at intervals of three months over a period of one and a half years.
Variations in bioeroders and bioaccretors were noted. Microfaunas are far more numerous than macrofaunas as block colonizers; the principal borers are polychaete worms, whereas encrusters are molluscs, bryozoans, serpulids and solitary corals. The reef slope is more readily colonised by microfauna pioneer communities than are the other areas. All the environments exhibit a change from cirratulids to either sabellids or spionids polydorids over the length of the experiment.
Annual erosion rates produced by polychaete worms are 0. Unrecognized coral species diversity masks differences in functional ecology. Porites corals are foundation species on Pacific reefs but a confused taxonomy hinders understanding of their ecosystem function and responses to climate change. Here, we show that what has been considered a single species in the eastern tropical Pacific, Porites lobata, includes a morphologically similar yet ecologically distinct species, Porites evermanni.
While P. These fragments proliferate in marginal habitat not colonized by P. The two Porites species also show a differential bleaching response despite hosting the same dominant symbiont subclade. Thus, hidden diversity within these reef-builders has until now obscured differences in trophic interactions, reproductive dynamics and bleaching susceptibility, indicative of differential responses when confronted with future climate change.
Is there a hybridization barrier between Gentiana lutea color morphs? In Gentiana lutea two varieties are described: G. Both color varieties co-occur in NW Spain, and pollinators select flower color in this species. It is not known whether a hybridization barrier exists between these G. We aim to test the compatibility between flower color varieties in G.
Within a sympatric population containing Differential larval settlement responses of Porites astreoides and Acropora palmata in the presence of the green alga Halimeda opuntia. Settlement is critical to maintaining coral cover on reefs, yet interspecific responses of coral planulae to common benthic macroalgae are not well characterized.
Larval survival and settlement of two Caribbean reef-building corals , the broadcast-spawner Acropora palmata and the planulae-brooder Porites astreoides, were quantified following exposure to plastic algae controls and the green macroalga Halimeda opuntia. Survival and settlement rates were not significantly affected by the presence of H.
It is unlikely that corals that settle on macroalgae will survive post-settlement; therefore, H. Our results suggest that the presence of macroalgae on impacted reefs can have unexpected repercussions for coral recruitment and highlight discrepancies in settlement specificity between corals with distinct life history strategies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seychelles coral oxygen time series, data are monthly values of d18O from July to February from a 3-m Porites lutea coral colony collected from Beau
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