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Section creates several distinct crimes: 1 laundering with intent to promote an illicit activity such as an unlawful gambling business; 2 laundering to evade taxes; 3 laundering to conceal or disguise; 4 structuring financial transactions smurfing to avoid reporting requirements; 5 international laundering; and 6 "laundering" conduct by those caught in a law enforcement sting. In its most basic form the promotion offense essentially involves plowing the proceeds of crime back into an illegal enterprise.

Section has two promotional offenses: those involving financial transactions and those involving international monetary transfers. The elements of the two are roughly comparable. The transaction offense applies to whoever. The knowledge element is the subject of a special definition which allows a conviction without the necessity of proving that the defendant knew the exact particulars of the underlying offense or even its nature. The "financial transaction" necessary to satisfy that element of the crime may take virtually any shape that involves the disposition of something representing the proceeds of an underlying crime, including a disposition as informal as handing cash over to someone else.

The statutory definition of the necessary "financial transaction" provides the basis for federal jurisdiction. To qualify, the transaction must be one that affects interstate or foreign commerce or must involve a financial institution whose activities affect such commerce. It is not enough to show that a money launderer's actions resulted in promoting the carrying on of specified unlawful activity.

Nor may the government rest on proof that the defendant engaged in 'knowing promotion' of the unlawful activity. Instead, there must be evidence of intentional promotion. In other words, the evidence must show that the defendant's conduct not only promoted a specified unlawful activity but that he engaged in it with the intent to further the progress of that activity. The government must also establish that proceeds of the transaction are derived from a predicate offense and that they are intended to promote a predicate offense.

The elements of the travel or transportation version of promotional money laundering are comparable, but distinctive. They apply to anyone who. One of the distinctive features of the transportation promotional money laundering provision is that the transported, transmitted, or transferred funds do not have to be the proceeds of a predicate offense.

Section is subject to general federal law with regard to accomplice and conspirator liability, except that it permits the same punishment for conspirators as for simple launderers. The "concealment" offenses share several common elements with the promotion offenses of section For instance the transaction offense, like the promotion transaction offense in all but one aspect, proscribes.

The fourth and distinctive element of the transactional concealment offense covers more than simple spending and more than simple concealment of the proceeds. Concealment must be designed to concern, that is, it must be purposeful concealment. The transportation concealment offense tracks both the transportation promotional and the transaction concealment offense. Like the promotional offense and unlike the transaction offense, the government must prove that the defendant knew of the tainted nature of the transported funds.

The concealment clause requires that concealment be the motivating force, at least in part, for the transportation. The tax evasion and structured transactions or report evasion "smurfing" offenses shadow the promotion and concealment offenses. A tax evasion, laundering prosecution requires the government to show that the defendant acted intentionally rather than inadvertently, but not that the defendant knew that his conduct violated the tax laws.

The final crime found in section is a "sting" offense, the proscription drafted to permit the prosecution of money launderers taken in by undercover officers claiming they have proceeds from illegal gambling or other predicate offenses in need of cleansing. Section does not make spending tainted money a crime, but section does.

Using most of the same definitions as section , the elements of cover anyone who. Federal jurisdiction flows from the definition of the tainted monetary transaction, that is a transaction, "in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce" or one involving a financial institution. The predicate offense and the money laundering offense must be separate, distinct crimes, but the standard is met when the defendant deposits a check representing the proceeds of a completed offense.

The requisite monetary transaction may involve any number of "financial institutions"—a bank, credit union, any of the statutorily designated high-cash flow businesses, or any comparable business designated by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Constitutional objections initially greeted the prospect of prosecuting illegal Internet gambling. Principal among these have been questions as to Congress's legislative power under the Commerce Clause, restrictions imposed by the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech, and due process concerns about the regulation of activities occurring at least in part overseas.

Congress possesses no legislative power that cannot be traced to the Constitution. Lopez and Morrison , are perhaps the best known of these reminders. In doing so, Lopez mapped Congress's Commerce Clause powers:. First, Congress may regulate the use of the channels of interstate commerce Heart of Atlanta Motel, [ Inc. United States , U. Second, Congress is empowered to regulate and protect the instrumentalities of interstate commerce, or persons or things in interstate commerce, even through the threat may come only from intrastate activities.

See, e. Perez [v. Finally, Congress' commerce authority includes the power to regulate those activities having a substantial relation to interstate commerce, i. Since the Gun-Free School Zones Act addressed neither the channels nor the content of commerce, it had to find coverage under the power to regulate matters that "substantially affect" interstate or foreign commerce.

This it could not do. It was devoid of any economic component and so could claim no kinship to earlier cases approving Congressional regulation of various forms of intrastate economic activity that substantially affected interstate commerce, such as, "regulation of intrastate coal mining, intrastate extortionate credit transactions [loan sharking], restaurants utilizing substantial interstate supplies, inns and hotels catering to interstate guests, and production and consumption of homegrown wheat.

Moreover, the act lacked the kind of explicit restraints or guidelines that might have confined its application to instances more clearly within the Commerce power. Its criminal proscription contained no "commerce" element; it did not, for example, outlaw possession of a firearm, which had been transported in interstate commerce , within 1, feet of a school.

Its enactment occurred without the accompaniment of legislative findings or declarations of purpose that might have guided appropriate enforcement limitations. The act's overreaching was all the more troubling because it sought to bring federal regulation to school activities, an area where the states "historically have been sovereign.

Morrison echoed Lopez , quoting it extensively in the course of an opinion that found that the Commerce Clause did not empower Congress to create a federal civil remedy for the victims of gender-motivated violence. For instance, the Clause does not empower Congress to compel the states to exercise their sovereign legislative or executive powers to implement a federal regulatory scheme.

These limitations, notwithstanding, the federal appellate courts have conclude that a gambling business, legal or illegal, is a commercial activity, and as a consequence, may be regulated under the Commerce Clause. Gambling implicates First Amendment free speech concerns on two levels.

Gambling is communicative by nature. Gambling also relies on advertising and a wide range of auxiliary communication services. Historically, gambling itself has been considered a vice and consequently beyond the protection of the First Amendment. There is every reason to believe that illegal gambling remains beyond the shield of the First Amendment.

Gone, however, is the notion that the power to outlaw a vice includes the power to outlaw auxiliary speech when the underlying vice remains unregulated. Early commentators suggested application of federal criminal law to offshore Internet gambling entrepreneurs implicated due process, personal jurisdiction concerns, as understood in civil cases. The Due Process Clause protects an individual's liberty interest in not being subject to the binding judgments of a forum with which he has established no meaningful 'contacts, ties, or relations.

Washington , U. By requiring that individuals have fair warning that a particular activity may subject them to the jurisdiction of a foreign sovereign, the Due Process Clause gives a degree of predictability to the legal system that allows potential defendants to structure their primary conduct with some minimum assurance as to where that conduct will and will not render them liable to suit,' World-Wide Volkswagen Corp.

Woodson , U. Although it has been argued that foreseeability of causing injury in another State should be sufficient to establish such contacts there when policy considerations so require, the Court has consistently held that this kind of foreseeability is not a sufficient benchmark for exercising personal jurisdiction. Instead, the foreseeability that is critical to due process analysis The lower federal appellate courts, called upon to apply these principles in Internet commercial litigation, have concluded that suing nonresident parties doing business on the Internet where they have a real and continuous presence or where they caused an injury does not offend due process requirements.

Yet, more than a passive Internet site is required; the critical test is often the level of commercial activity associated with the website. In a criminal law context, some courts describe a due process requirement that demands a nexus between the United States and the circumstances of the offense.

The commentators have greeted this analysis with some hesitancy, and some courts have simply rejected it. Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prejudice the right of any person affected thereby to secure an appropriate determination, as otherwise provided by law, in a Federal court or in a State or local tribunal or agency, that such facility should not be discontinued or removed, or should be restored.

All provisions of law relating to the seizure, summary, and judicial forfeiture procedures, and condemnation of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage for violation of the customs laws; the disposition of such vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage or the proceeds from such sale; the remission or mitigation of such forfeitures; and the compromise of claims and the award of compensation to informers in respect of such forfeitures shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred or alleged to have been incurred under the provisions of this section, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with such provisions.

Such duties as are imposed upon the collector of customs or any other person in respect to the seizure and forfeiture of vessels, vehicles, merchandise, and baggage under the customs laws shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property used or intended for use in violation of this section by such officers, agents, or other persons as may be designated for that purpose by the Attorney General.

A an act described in paragraph 1 or 3 shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both; or. B an act described in paragraph 2 shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life. Prohibition on acceptance of any financial instrument for unlawful internet gambling. No person engaged in the business of betting or wagering may knowingly accept, in connection with the participation of another person in unlawful Internet gambling—.

Notwithstanding section 2 , a financial transaction provider, or any interactive computer service or telecommunications service, may be liable under this subchapter if such person has actual knowledge and control of bets and wagers, and—. A In general. B Relief.

B Rule of construction. A be limited to the removal of, or disabling of access to, an online site violating section , or a hypertext link to an online site violating such section, that resides on a computer server that such service controls or operates, except that the limitation in this subparagraph shall not apply if the service is subject to liability under this section under section ;. B be available only after notice to the interactive computer service and an opportunity for the service to appear are provided;.

C not impose any obligation on an interactive computer service to monitor its service or to affirmatively seek facts indicating activity violating this subchapter;. E specifically identify the location of the online site or hypertext link to be removed or access to which is to be disabled.

A operates, manages, supervises, or directs an Internet website at which unlawful bets or wagers may be placed, received, or otherwise made or at which unlawful bets or wagers are offered to be placed, received, or otherwise made; or. B owns or controls, or is owned or controlled by, any person who operates, manages, supervises, or directs an Internet website at which unlawful bets or wagers may be placed, received, or otherwise made, or at which unlawful bets or wagers are offered to be placed, received, or otherwise made.

Policies and procedures to identify and prevent restricted transactions. A allow the payment system and any person involved in the payment system to identify restricted transactions by means of codes in authorization messages or by other means; and. B block restricted transactions identified as a result of the policies and procedures developed pursuant to subparagraph A.

B otherwise prevent or prohibit the acceptance of the products or services of the payment system, member, or participant in connection with restricted transactions; and. A means the staking or risking by any person of something of value upon the outcome of a contest of others, a sporting event, or a game subject to chance, upon an agreement or understanding that the person or another person will receive something of value in the event of a certain outcome;.

B includes the purchase of a chance or opportunity to win a lottery or other prize which opportunity to win is predominantly subject to chance ;. D includes any instructions or information pertaining to the establishment or movement of funds by the bettor or customer in, to, or from an account with the business of betting or wagering; and. II is exempt from State gaming or bucket shop laws under section 12 e of the Commodity Exchange Act or section 28 a of the Securities Exchange Act of ;.

I personal efforts of the participants in playing the game or contest or obtaining access to the Internet; or. II points or credits that the sponsor of the game or contest provides to participants free of charge and that can be used or redeemed only for participation in games or contests offered by the sponsor; or.

I All prizes and awards offered to winning participants are established and made known to the participants in advance of the game or contest and their value is not determined by the number of participants or the amount of any fees paid by those participants.

II All winning outcomes reflect the relative knowledge and skill of the participants and are determined predominantly by accumulated statistical results of the performance of individuals athletes in the case of sports events in multiple real-world sporting or other events. B Intrastate transactions.

I age and location verification requirements reasonably designed to block access to minors and persons located out of such State; and. II appropriate data security standards to prevent unauthorized access by any person whose age and current location has not been verified in accordance with such State's law or regulations; and.

C Intratribal transactions. I within the Indian lands of a single Indian tribe as such terms are defined under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ; or. II between the Indian lands of 2 or more Indian tribes to the extent that intertribal gaming is authorized by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act;. I the applicable tribal ordinance or resolution approved by the Chairman of the National Indian Gaming Commission; and.

I age and location verification requirements reasonably designed to block access to minors and persons located out of the applicable Tribal lands; and. II appropriate data security standards to prevent unauthorized access by any person whose age and current location has not been verified in accordance with the applicable tribal ordinance or resolution or Tribal-State Compact; and.

This subparagraph is intended to address concerns that this subchapter could have the effect of changing the existing relationship between the Interstate Horseracing Act and other Federal statutes in effect on the date of the enactment of this subchapter. This subchapter is not intended to change that relationship.

This subchapter is not intended to resolve any existing disagreements over how to interpret the relationship between the Interstate Horseracing Act and other Federal statutes. E Intermediate routing. A Credit; creditor; credit card; and card issuer.

C Financial institution. E Money transmitting business and money transmitting service. A purchase of securities on the open market for purposes of investment, and without the intention of controlling or participating in the control of the issuer, or of assisting another to do so, shall not be unlawful under this subsection if the securities of the issuer held by the purchaser, the members of his immediate family, and his or their accomplices in any pattern or racketeering activity or the collection of an unlawful debt after such purchase do not amount in the aggregate to one percent of the outstanding securities of any one class, and do not confer, either in law or in fact, the power to elect one or more directors of the issuer.

Any department or agency so designated may use in investigations authorized by this chapter either the investigative provisions of this chapter or the investigative power of such department or agency otherwise conferred by law. For purposes of this paragraph, a financial transaction shall be considered to be one involving the proceeds of specified unlawful activity if it is part of a set of parallel or dependent transactions, any one of which involves the proceeds of specified unlawful activity, and all of which are part of a single plan or arrangement.

B knowing that the monetary instrument or funds involved in the transportation, transmission, or transfer represent the proceeds of some form of unlawful activity and knowing that such transportation, transmission, or transfer is designed in whole or in part—. For the purpose of the offense described in subparagraph B , the defendant's knowledge may be established by proof that a law enforcement officer represented the matter specified in subparagraph B as true, and the defendant's subsequent statements or actions indicate that the defendant believed such representations to be true.

B to conceal or disguise the nature, location, source, ownership, or control of property believed to be the proceeds of specified unlawful activity; or. For purposes of this paragraph and paragraph 2 , the term "represented" means any representation made by a law enforcement officer or by another person at the direction of, or with the approval of, a Federal official authorized to investigate or prosecute violations of this section.

A the foreign person commits an offense under subsection a involving a financial transaction that occurs in whole or in part in the United States;. B the foreign person converts, to his or her own use, property in which the United States has an ownership interest by virtue of the entry of an order of forfeiture by a court of the United States; or. C the foreign person is a financial institution that maintains a bank account at a financial institution in the United States.

II from a foreign country pursuant to a mutual legal assistance treaty, multilateral agreement, or other arrangement for international law enforcement assistance, provided that such requests are in accordance with the policies and procedures of the Attorney General. A any financial institution, as defined in section a 2 of title 31, United States Code, or the regulations promulgated thereunder; and. B any foreign bank, as defined in section 1 of the International Banking Act of 12 U.

A any act or activity constituting an offense listed in section 1 of this title except an act which is indictable under subchapter II of chapter 53 of title 31;. B with respect to a financial transaction occurring in whole or in part in the United States, an offense against a foreign nation involving—. Parts ;. C any act or acts constituting a continuing criminal enterprise, as that term is defined in section of the Controlled Substances Act 21 U.

Such authority of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Postal Service shall be exercised in accordance with an agreement which shall be entered into by the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Postal Service, and the Attorney General.

Violations of this section involving offenses described in paragraph c 7 E may be investigated by such components of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may direct, and the National Enforcement Investigations Center of the Environmental Protection Agency. B any district where a prosecution for the underlying specified unlawful activity could be brought, if the defendant participated in the transfer of the proceeds of the specified unlawful activity from that district to the district where the financial or monetary transaction is conducted.

Any person who conducts as that term is defined in subsection c 2 any portion of the transaction may be charged in any district in which the transaction takes place. Engaging in monetary transactions in property derived from specified unlawful activity. Code Ann. Laws Ann. Penal Code Ann. The citations to the various state anti-gambling laws are listed at the end of this report. The particulars of those laws are generally beyond the scope of this report. Vacco v. World Interactive Gaming Corp.

Cohen , F. Att'y Gen. DM state gambling laws apply to online gambling ; Op. United States v. Ross , WL S. World Interactive Gaming Corporation , Misc. D'Ambrosia , F. Tedder , F. Kaplan , No. June 1, Nothing in this section shall be deemed to prejudice the right of any person affected thereby to secure an appropriate determination, as otherwise provided by law, in a Federal court or in a State or local tribunal or agency, that such facility should not be discontinued or removed, or should be restored," 18 U.

Each of these statutes is discussed, infra , and the text of each appears at the end of this report. Lombardo , F. Utah Scavo , F. Southard , F. Blair , 54 F. Ross , LW , Slip at S. United States , F. Pezzino , F. Sellers , F. Tomeo , F. Stonehouse, F.

Barone , F. Swank , F. Coeur d'Alene Tribe , 45 F. Idaho lottery ; United States v. Smith , F. Chase , F. Smith and Chase both involved "numbers" and seem to have arisen under the same facts. None of these cases specifically reject, or even mention, a "sporting event" limitation. In re MasterCard International Inc.

We agree That subsection provides a safe harbor for transmissions that occur under both of the following two conditions: 1 betting is legal in both the place of origin and the destination of the transmission; and 2 the transmission is limited to mere information that assists in the placing of bets, as opposed to including the bets themselves". George, F. Devries , F. Petersen , F. Hungerford , F. Louis University Law Journal , In other related developments, U.

Pinkerton v. United States, U. The conspiratorial agreement is itself a separate crime under 18 U. If, however, the offense, the commission of which is the object of the conspiracy, is a misdemeanor only, the punishment for such conspiracy shall not exceed the maximum punishment provided for such misdemeanor" ; United States v. Bingham , F. Vazquez-Castro, F. Matias , F. Hearing, at statement of Bruce G. The legislative history, however, suggests the absence of an intent to preempt state gambling laws, S.

Turfway Park Racing Ass'n , 20 F. Sterling Suffolk Racecourse Ltd. Burrillville Racing Ass'n, Inc. RICO prohibits the acquisition or operation of an enterprise whose activities affect interstate or foreign commerce through the patterned commission of two or more "racketeering activities," that is, two or more other specifically designated offenses such as violations of 18 U. Anyone injured in his business or property by a RICO violation enjoys a cause of action for treble damages, 18 U.

But section a carves out a specific exception for circumstances in which wagering on a sporting event is legal in both the sending and receiving state. See 18 U. That exception applies here". Under the current interpretation of the Interstate Horse Racing Act in , this type of gambling is illegal, although the Justice Department has not taken steps to enforce it.

This provision would codify legality of placing wages over the telephone or other electronic media like the Internet," Cong. The amendment clarifies that the Interstate Horseracing Act permits wagers made by telephone or other electronic media to be accepted by an off-track betting system in another state provided that such types of wages are lawful in each state involved and meet the requirements, if any, established by the legislature or appropriate regulatory body in the state where the person originating the wager resides," Cong.

Rogers this statement appears in type face used to "indicate[] words inserted or appended, rather than spoken by a Member of the House on the floor, Cong. Compliance in Pending Cases , at Hearing at 14 statement of Bruce G. The first three of these statutes were enacted well before the rise of Internet gambling, though they have collectively been interpreted to make some, and perhaps all, forms of online gambling illegal" ; Gottfried, The Federal Framework for Internet Gambling , 10 Richmond Journal of Law and Technology 26, 53 "While section has yet to be successfully used to prosecute an Internet gaming operation, its minimal requirements may make it a likely candidate for future use" ; General Accounting Office [now the Government Accountability Office], Internet Gambling: An Overview of the Issues 11 Dec.

Law Stop Internet Gambling? But see, United States v. Racing Services, Inc. But we noted that the 'government could have avoided this evidentiary insufficiency by proving that RSI entered the account wagering business never intending to distribute its net proceeds to charity[as state law required]. Hill , 55 F. Such actions would probably be sufficient proof that the seller intended to further the criminal enterprise" ; Superseding Indictment, United States v. Scheinberg , No. S3 10 Cr. March 10, charging individuals associated with Internet poker companies with violations of 18 U.

CCB D. April, 26, charging operators of Internet gambling sites with violations of 18 U. Useni , F. Sanabria v. Atiyeh , F. O'Brien , F. Perceptions of necessity are not always particularly demanding, see , e. Heacock , 31 F. Grey , 56 F. Mick , F. Febus , F. Chance , F. Bala , F. Gordon , F. Trupiano , 11 F. Consistent with this, substantially continuous has been read not to mean every day.

The operation, rather, must be one that was conducted upon a schedule of regularity sufficient to take it out of the casual nonbusiness category". Compare, United States v. Nicolaou , F. That is Boyd , F. Riddle , F. Lee, F. Threadgill , F. Ables , F. Zizzo , F. Wall , F. Falcone , U. Rizk , F. Cooper , F. Gore, F. Iannelli v. Jimenez Recio , U. Truesdale , F. People ex rel. Here, some or all of those funds in an Antiguan bank account are staked every time the New York user enters betting information into the computer.

It is irrelevant that Internet gambling is legal in Antigua. The act of entering the bet and transmitting the information from New York via the Internet is adequate to constitute gambling activity within New York State". EEOC v. Arabian American Oil Co.

Whether Congress has in fact exercised that authority Filardo , U. Petitioners concede that such power exists. The question is rather whether Congress intended to make the law applicable" ; United States v. Martinez , F. National Australia , S. Amerada Hess Shipping , U. Haitian Centers Council, Inc. United S tates v. Ford v. Larsen , F. Hill , F. Bowman , U. In such cases, Congress has not thought it necessary to make specific provision in the law that the locus shall include Vasquez-Velasco , 15 F.

Delgado-Garcia , F. Weinberger v. Rossi , U. Dawn , F. Yousef , F. Escobar-de-Jesus , F. Bankston , F. Montford , 27 F. Xiong , F. Welch , F. Nishnianidze , F. Driver , F. When the violation is a distribution of profits rather than promotional offense, the second element in the abbreviated list of elements is changed to "with the intent to distribute the proceeds of an unlawful activity," United States v. Hinojosa , F.

Unlike 18 U. Rewis v. Baker , F. Jenkins , F. Graham , F. Rogers , F. Auerbach , F. Of course, interstate travel will also suffice, United States v. Baker , 82 F. McNeal , 77 F. Houlihan , 92 F. Roberson 6 F. James , F. Saget , F. Iennaco , F. Griffin , 85 F. Campione , F.

Jones , F. Admon , F. Burns , F. Childress , 58 F. Lee , F. Pardue , F. Dischner , F. Contra, Blackjack or Bust: Can U. Hearing at 16 statement of Bruce G. B includes the purchase of a chance or opportunity to win a lottery or other prize which opportunity to win is predominantly subject to chance ; C includes any scheme of a type described in section of title 28".

D includes any instructions or information pertaining to the establishment or movement of funds by the bettor or customer in, to, or from an account with the business of betting or wagering". E does not include— i any activity governed by the securities laws as that term is defined in section 3 a 47 of the Securities Exchange Act of for the purchase or sale of securities as that term is defined in section 3 a 10 of that Act ; ii any transaction conducted on or subject to the rules of a registered entity or exempt board of trade under the Commodity Exchange Act; iii any over-the-counter derivative instrument; iv any other transaction that— I is excluded or exempt from regulation under the Commodity Exchange Act; or II is exempt from State gaming or bucket shop laws under section 12 e of the Commodity Exchange Act or section 28 a of the Securities Exchange Act of ".

E does not include III No winning outcome is based— aa on the score, point-spread, or any performance or performances of any single real-world team or any combination of such teams; or bb solely on any single performance of an individual athlete in any single real-world sporting or other event". This subchapter is not intended to resolve any existing disagreements over how to interpret the relationship between the Interstate Horseracing Act and other Federal statutes".

See also , 31 U. The Gambling Devices Transportation Act, also known as the Johnson Act, among other things prohibits the interstate transportation of gambling devices under some circumstances. Class I gaming refers to social games played for stakes of minimal value; class II gaming means bingo and cards games that are legal under applicable state law not including blackjack, baccarat and other banking games ; class III gaming describes any other form of gambling that is not class I or class II gaming and includes things like casino gambling, 25 U.

Dominguez , F. Voice , F. Alston-Graves , F. Bryan v. See , e. The United States, acting through the Attorney General, may institute proceedings under this section to prevent or restrain a restricted transaction To obtain this qualification students must successfully complete the required assessment tasks. First Name. Last Name. Date of Birth. Select Gender Female Male Other.

Schedule Typically delivered one day a week for 20 weeks or one evening a week for 30 weeks. Requirements Contact our team to express your interest. Cost Student fees are based on the qualification and characteristics of the student.

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You must be enrolled to be able to access your learning materials. If you want to go on to further study at university, TAFE Queensland has a pathway option to get you there. In many cases, completing one of our diplomas may give you a full year of credit towards a degree with one of our partner universities. If you are unsure of what's right for you, get in touch. We're here to help. This may be the full fee for the course, or the student contribution amount if you are eligible for a subsidy or concession.

If you have difficulty paying for the full cost of a course upfront, you may be eligible for a payment plan. A good knowledge of computer basics with a sound achievement in Year 10 Maths, and English is desirable. All age applicants are welcome. Skill and knowledge assessments are an essential step in progressing through your course. You may be assessed in a number of ways while you are studying at TAFE Queensland, including observation, written assessment, questioning, portfolios, work samples, third-party feedback, and through recognition of prior learning.

Read more about assessment methods. Disclaimer All information was accurate at time of publication, however TAFE policies, tuition fees and course content is subject to change without notice. Course commencement is dependent on sufficient enrolment numbers. If you're ready to get started, simply hit the Apply Now button on your preferred course information page and get your application underway online.

Fast track your way to a formal qualification by earning credit for the things you already know. Getting recognition for the skills you've gained from the workplace or previous learning means less study time for you, and getting the paper to prove you're qualified a whole lot sooner. We can assess your skills, directly apply credits from previous successful study, and give you advanced standing in your course.

If you have read and understood the student rules , refund policy , understand your fees and payment options , have a Unique Student Identifier USI and checked you meet the entry requirements and selection criteria for this course, you're ready to get started. As an International student you can either apply directly through our application portal Studylink , or through one of our education agents.

Our registered agents can assist you with your visa application and guide you through the enrolment process. If you are from this list of countries , will need to apply through an agent. Please select a DCR for this component. Apply now Enquire now. At a glance. Ways to Study By location Online. Download Brochure. Get Started Today Enquire now Apply now. Greater Brisbane. Tafe Queensland Online. Apply Now 1. Choose a way to study Select a way to study. Choose where you want to study Choose a region Select a location.

Choose a campus Choose which campus you want to attend. Enquire Now 1. Course overview Kick start your career in the legal profession with this qualification in business administration. Core units. Unit code: BSBITU Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to develop keyboard skills with speed and accuracy using touch-typing techniques. Unit code: BSBWHS Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to work in a manner that is healthy and safe in relation to self and others and to respond to emergency incidents.

Elective units. Unit code: BSBADM Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to manage appointments and diaries for personnel within an organisation, using manual and electronic diaries, schedules and other appointment systems.

Unit code: BSBCUS Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to identify customer needs, deliver and monitor customer service and identify improvements in the provision of customer service. Unit code: BSBITU Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to design and produce various business documents and publications. Unit code: BSBLEG Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to complete a range of common legal administrative duties within the legal system.

Unit code: BSBLEG Unit description: This unit describes skills and knowledge required to organise court documents for delivery, plan a schedule of delivery, deliver documents to the appropriate courts and return proof of document lodgement. Unit code: BSBLEG Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to use ethical behaviour when dealing with sensitive and confidential information in a legal environment.

Unit code: BSBLEG Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to maintain time records and enter disbursements incurred. Unit code: BSBITU Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to correctly create and use spreadsheets and charts using both cloud-based and non-cloud based spreadsheet applications.

Unit code: BSBITU Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to design and produce electronic slide presentations using various applications and platforms. Unit code: BSBLEG Unit description: This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to interpret and use legal terminology in order to undertake tasks. Note: For some courses, not all electives are available at all campuses. Ways to study. Duration 9 months. When your course is scheduled to begin. Duration 12 weeks per intake.

Average course duration 12 months. What you need to know about studying online Intake For most online courses study is structured into fixed intakes that have set durations of 12 weeks from the study commencement date. Overview New to the legal environment, but want to build on your skills?

This is a fully government-subsidised JobTrainer course. Eligibility criteria applies. The course specialises in legal administration and includes: Applying knowledge of the legal system Carrying out searches of public records Delivering court documentation Using legal terminology to carry out tasks You will also learn: Basic office administration, including practising keyboard efficiency Microsoft Office software applications Completion of this course can open up opportunities in roles such as Legal Receptionist, Secretary or Clerk.

Search refined by Clear All Location. Clear Location. Within 1 km radius 10 km radius 30 km radius 50 km radius km radius km radius km radius. Study Type. Clear Blended. Full Time. Part Time. Part Time Day. Part Time Evening. Full Time - Connected Learning. Part Time - Connected Learning. Part Time Day - Connected Learning. Part Time Evening - Connected Learning.

Course Type. Clear Apprenticeship Allowed.


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Some funding schemes have age. Cricket tips free betting now for a full list of subjects Enquire Now. There is usually a discount and records, stenography and transcription, tuition fees upfront. Part Time Day - Connected. Search refined by Clear All. We'll match the best course. PARAGRAPHThe course specialises in legal course providers offer flexible payment of the legal system Carrying out searches of public records Delivering court documentation Using legal monthly interest-free payments for those You will also learn: Basic are unable to pay their tuition fees outright Completion of this course can. Are you enrolled in high. Within 1 km radius 10 km radius 30 km radius options for the BSB Certificate km radius km radius who do not wish or. Confirm your answers by clicking.

The nationally recognised Certificate III in Business Administration will prepare you with the professional office administration skills This course is currently available at campus locations across NSW and online. Casino: Part Time Day. Complete the nationally accredited Certificate III in Business Administration (​Medical) to specialise your including schools, hospitals, government agencies, legal offices, digital and media agencies and more. This course is currently available at 53 campus locations across NSW and online. Casino: Part Time Day. Related Courses · FNS Certificate III In Accounts Administration · BSB Certificate III In Business Administration (Legal) · BSB Certificate III In.