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Isaac means one who pr'evails with Godl-name given to Jacob after having wrestled with him. Jacob adopted two sons of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh, in Joseph's place, which made Then one tribe, that of Levi, was devoted to religion, leaving still 12 political tribes. Then came the law from Mount Sinai.
God became the king of Israel, every thing done to establish religion, John IT. Tabernacle made for his residence. Defection from religion high treason, Hence complete separation from all nations, e. Cicero condemns Jews, Moses was but a mediator between God and his people; proper title legislator of the Is ra elites and their deliverer fromn the Egy2tian.
Hence no proper successor. Joshua was military leader for conquest of Canaan and had no successor. The Elders were heads of tribes, 6 from each made Priests were at head of religious ceremonies. Before Moses, heads of tribes were priests, e. Afterwards family of Levi was chosen for the services of religion, and priesthood was annexed to the family of Aaron. Kings no longer officiated, e. Uzziah, king of Judah, punished, 2 Chron.
Levites provided for by tithes from all other tribes, and they in turn paid tithes to the priests. For administration of justice Moses divided people in tens, fifties, hundreds, thousands, and placed judges over each. Mode taken from Egypt. Amongst the higher of these judges there was much political power likewise.
People desired a king under Samuel, and Saul was appointed. The assemblies of two kinds: 1st. Assembly of the congregation-all the judges, and many of the people admitted, J. To these assemblies Moses added himself when he delivered the law.
What twas the political r'elation existing between the tribes? Each tribe had a sort of independent government, with its own magistrates and representatives; sometimes acted without aid or sanction of others, e. Sometimes several tribes acted together without others, e. What were the circumnstances calculated to bind them together?
Necessity of union against common enemies. They came from a common ancestor, Abraham —divine promises-common religion-common. God and king-sacred tabernacle, and afterwards the temple, common oracle, urim and thummim-common high priest-common learned class, Levites-common law of church and state, and common general assemblies and festivals, e. What the inJflence of such a government? Exceedingly favorable to development of character and individual energies.
Not favorable for harmony or tranquillity. Civilization of Israelites. Not superior to their neighbors except in religion. Character entirely Nomadic at first, then mixed. Uniform simplicity —every one either shepherd or husbandman, e. Gideon taken from threshing floor to deliver his country. Saul was tending his flocks when made king. David was brought up in sheepfold. Ruth beautiful expose of condition of people in those days. Amusements onfestival occasions.
Music and dancing. We have canticles of joy, of thanksgiving, of praise, of mourning, e. There were 24 bands of music for the- temple. Kings had their own music, e. Asaph was master of music to David. Kings were sometimes musicians, e. David exquisite on the harp-drove off vapors of Saul by his music, and charmed Saul's messengers who came to take him, Calmet. Dancing was an essential part of the festal solemnities, and of the sacred worship, e.
After passage of Red Sea, damsels of Israel. David danced at induction of ark into the tabernacle, and reproached by Michel not for danciing, but for mixing with the people, 2 Sam. At the feast of Shiloh, the damsels danced. Indeed in Psalms , 4, and , 4, the dance is ordered. Some commentators suppose every psalm had an appropriate dance. The dance was in Israel what Cicero says of it in his day, lIIulta'rum deliciarum comes saltatio.
Literary character of the Israelites? Purely national, but of high order. Three most distinguished persons, Moses, David, and Solomon, three splendid poets and writers. Sacred poetry of other nations contemptible when compared. Finest specimens of the beautiful and the sublime are found in the Bible.
Isaiah sublime in the extreme. Koran, Zendevesta, Vedas, and all other religious codes, sink into in. The sublimity of the prophets a proof of inspiration. Arts, manufactures: and commerce? Arts considerably advanced but not equal to Egyptians. Each one made his own instruments for tillage. Women spun, wove, embroidered, and made clothes for their families, and for sale. In time of David and Solomon, there were good carpenters and masons, though not equal to Tyrians.
At later date artificers in high repute, e. In time of patriarchs, commerce was by caravans. In days of David and Solomon both by caravans and sea. Tyrians in those days were carriers of the world. TWZhat is the principal source from which the history of the earliest periods of E gypt, and of most of the great Asiatic nationts, is der'ived?
Objects of'raising mzonuments? Raised by kings and nations through a principle of mere vanity, or to commemorate great events, or to serve useful purposes. Pillar of Jacob at Hebron-heap of stones, mark of reconciliation with Laban.
How are mnonumzents historical? First, they indicate state of the arts and civilization. Second, excites inquiry —a history, a tradition or mnythus attached to them, e. When covered with inscriptions much more instructive. Arundelian and Capitoline marbles, p. Charlacter of a monuzmental history? All the names of persons and places in Old Testament of historic importancename of this state, name of this place, college, Pittsburg, Le Chanmp du lknsortge, when Gregory treated with Louis feeble.
Historic importance of national crustomes and ceremonies? Paschal supper among Jews. Lord's supper among Christians, annual ship sent by Athenians to Delos, the ceremony of wedding Adriatic sea at Venice, celebration of 22d February and 4th July in United States. Anaximander's petition to magistrates of Lampsacum that boys might play on anniversary of his death. All have a tendency to perpetuate history of events.
Ilistorical importance of coins and mzedals? Portable monuments -generally have date-some king or emblem-you learn state of arts. Nero has his fiddle, Commodus lion skin. Medals have been struck expressly to commemorate events. All events of reign of Louis XIV. Because they are numerous; large, and often covered with hieroglyphics, which enable us to guess at their history.
I-low mzcany kinads of hieroglyphics? Figurative, symbolic or ideographic, and phonetic. Ground plot of a house for the house. Firmament by section of blue ceiling with or without stars. Symbolical or ideogralphic?
Must go to rhetoric for the ideaexpression of abstract ideas by physical objects. By synecdoche —two arms lifted up was an offering-perfuming pan and grains of incense, adoration. By metonomy-crescent of moon for month- writing materials for writing. By metaphor —bee for an obedient people. Four legs of lion for strength; asp for power of life or deatrh.
Greppo, The symbolical were the only true hieroglyphics according to ancients. Hieroglyphics for letters corresponding to our alphabet. In what did great discovery of Young and Champollion consist? In proving the existence of this class, and furnishing key by which it might be read. In what mzanner were they led to this discovery? Upon general principles, they supposed that the Egyptians must have had all alphabet.
Fact first proved by trilingual monument dug up by the French troops at Rosetta, in Egypt, containing a decree in honor of Ptolemy Epiphanes, in Greek on one side, in hieroglyphics on the other, and enchorial on the third. Supposed the same decree on each side, but in different languages-Greek translated the other two. Supposed further, that the hieroglyphics encompassed in an elliptical basrelief, called cartouche, must be the name of the king, Ptolmnes. In same manner on another monument the name of Cleopatra was deciphered.
The correspondence of five letters common to the two names proved the truth of the conjecture. In this way the names of numerous kings were quickly deciphered, and great light was shed over the Egyptian history. The Phonetic constituted about two-thirds of all found on the monuments. Wazctt the principz le ont which the Egyptians chose signs for their letters? That hieroglyphic of any object might be used to signify initial letter in the name of the object; e. How, on this principle, could the signs be prevented fJiro indefinite increase?
Merely by arbitrary limitation. No letter has more than eight or ten signs for it. But all that were selected were chosen on the principle stated. Why is the history of Egypt so interesting? TWho supposed to be the founder? Ham, son of Noah, and was anciently called Misraim, after son of Ham. Situation and boundaries? Egypt almost as small as England.
Divisions of Egypt? Three-upper, middle, and lower. Thebais from city Thebes, Heptanomis, or seven nomes, and the Deltas. Character of government? Three estates-king, priests, and soldiers. The priests controlled the king to great extent, e. Diodorus says early in morning king attended to state affairs-then sacrifices and prayers-then priest rehearsed his praises and reminded him of his duties, and read to him from lives of the great kings.
I-ow was Egypt divided for p olitical pu rposes? Into nomes. Origin of nomes? Iost probably a division first made for religious purposes. Each one had its own temple, and was under its own governor, and worshipped often gods of its own, not only distinct from, but frequently hostile to those of its neighbors.
TWas the government of Egypt always a consolidated despotism? Egypt at first seems to have been divided into tribes, and afterwards into nomes-each having government of its own. This government was probably consolidated by the expulsion of the Hyksos or Shepherd kings, and partly by the policy of Joseph during the years of faminewhen the king became a sort of feudal proprietor of all the lands.
But the priests never lost their power. WVotld not Egypt have been greater with a more consolidated government? Great consolidated empires unfavorable to individual energy and greatness; they are without a history, e. Division of lands in Egypt? Principal portion belonged to the three ruling castes-kings, priests, and soldiers.
What the law in regard to trades, occupations, 4-c.? All hereditary; son followed business of father. What degree of consanguinity allowed of in marriage? Even brothers and sisters. Causes —lst, Isis and Osiris married; 2d, Brothers and sisters kept separate from each other. Divided into two branches-Esoteric and Exoteric -mystical and the popular. Former, religion of the priests, not known to the people. Egyptianm mythology? This supreme mind. Theory of Orpheus that the world was hatched from an immense egg by fiery nature of spirit, taken from this.
Ammon, under a modification, represented the male spirit of the universe, called Nef or Nour-the good genius-vivifying principle, vis vivica, described so well by Virgil: "Spiritus intus aliit, totamque infusa per artus, "Mens agitat nolein, et toto se corpore miscet. Her chief temple at Sais. Inscription on her temple, "I am all that has been, all that is, and all that will be. In Vedas, Vishnou is spoken of in similar strain,' All which has been, all which is, and all which will be, are in Vishnou.
Sme, goddess of justice, answers to Themnis. Osiris answers to Pluto, Isis to Proserpine and Ceres both. Whole world divided into three zones. I st, Earth, or zone of trial; 2d, zone of air, agitated by winds and storms, zone of temporal punishment; 3d, above these two, zone of rest; these three subdivided into thirty-two. God Pooh presided over second zone, where bad spirits were tormented, till they came either to earth,-to animate a new body according to doctrine of transmigration of souls , or passed to third zone, into pure ether of rest.
Origin of Grecian notions about Acheron, Charon, Cerberus, 4-c.? For city of Memphis is common place of burial beyond the lake Acheirjsia or Acharejish, meaning last state or condition of man. On border of this lake sat a tribunal of forty-two judges, who decided whether deceased should be buried beyond the lake; virtuous entitled.
The good carried over in a boat, for which a stated sum was paid. Cemetery was large plain, surrounded by trees intersected by canals, called elisant or elisiczns, meaning rest. Hence lake Acheron, Tartarus, Chatron, and the elysian fields of the Greeks. Again, after interment, three cries or farewells were uttered by the attendants. On tomb, horse of the Nile was engraved, or placed on the qnummnzy. Greeks mistook this for a dog, and connecting it with three farewell shouts, represented a triple-headed dog called Cerberus, from Egyptian ceriber, meaning cry of the tomb.
Animal worship. Animals worshipped kept in consecrated inclosures, attended by higher classes, and buried with royal pomp. Fire terrific, says Herodotus, because of the danger to cats, and not to children. Cry, save the cats. Roman ambassador who killed a cat. Puzzle of Theme? What kept these cats from multiplying to an alarming extent, with such kind treatment?
Thinks the kittens were not gods, and therefore destroyed before deified. We acquire love for animals in certain situations. Tartar for his horse, and the Arab for his camel. Learqning of Egyptians? Surpassed rest of the world in early times. Moses was said to possess the wisdom of Egyptians, and Solomon hyperbolically spoken of as possessing more than the boasted wisdom of Egypt. Geometry was first studied in this country. Annual inundation produced annual processioning. Derivation of the term-ge, terra.
Anecdote of Thales, and the discovery of the mode of inscribing right angled triangle in a circle-of Pythagoras and the 47th Euclid; former sacrificed an ox, the latter one hundred; the latter doubted, because Pythagoras believed in transmigration of souls.
In medicine, profession divided physician for each great division of human system. Theory about the duration of human life-astrology. The horoscope of each individual was cast at birth, and this superstition threw great power into hands of priests. Because almost cut off from world by sea and desert, she was left to her own resources for aggrandizement. Sesostris was her most warlike monarch. Hieroglyphics have proved his existence and mighty power. What did her wealth, and civillization depend on?
Upon the development of her internal resources. Physicalcharacter of Egypt? Soil finest in world-the gift of the Nile. Nile commences rising about summer solstice, and continues till about autumnal equinox; caused by periodical rains in the mountains of Ethiopia; a rich slime is deposited, which renews every year the powers of the soil.
Water is spread over the country by canals, and if the inundation does not reach a certain height, a famine or scarcity is sure to ensue; for in Egypt it rarely rains, hence perfect preservation of monuments and paintings. Different appearances of Egypt in July, Auguzst, 4-c. By the Libyan chain of mountains, a stony ridge covered with sand. On the west it sinks down into the great desert; on the east into the fertile valley of the Nile; guards Egypt against invasions of sandsyou have have here the region of fertility bordering on the waste.
Again, in valley you have the habitations of the living; at foot of Libyan chain, and in the sides of mountains, you have countless graves and sepulchres -you have emjpir'e of life bordering on empire of death. This circumstance powerfully influenced the character of the nation. Character of the countr'y on the ecaste'rn side of the Nile from the valley to the A. From this district came the materials for all the splendid monuments of Egypt. Valley of Nile, in whole course through Upper and Middle Egypt, was covered with succession of cities and monuments; those of Upper Egypt Thebais most magnificent.
Pyramids belong to Middle Egypt. As you ascend the Nile, Tentyris, now Dendccra, on west side, is first city in Upper Egypt to strike beholder with its gigantic and massive architecture, so different from any thing on globe. Here is the temple with the famous Zodiac. Twenty miles higher up, come to great city of Anlmon-mighty Thebes-whole width. Temples towering like mountains, surrounded by scattered colossi, sphinxes, and obelisks. Ascending the Nile, link after link of this chain of monuments follows in rapid succession.
Just beyond the bounds of Thebes, ruins of Hermanthis present themselves-then beautiful temple of Esnek, ancient Latopolis-then Edfu, the ancient Apollinopolis lagnrza, with the most magnificent temple, except that of Thebes; then come monuments of Eliethyca, Silsilis, and Ombos. Twenty-five miles farther we come to limits of ancient Egypt, and here are the most splendid monuments.
At Philce they show the tomb of Osiris-on the isle of Elephantis, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs, erected monuments here which are now scattered in the dust; but those of old Egypt, thousand years older than the oldest, defy destruction! No wonder that travellers have supposed sometimes that a race of giants must have built these great monuments. The lake Moeris, miles in circumference, was to great extent artificial, intended to receive waters of the Nile for the dry season.
Near this was the Labyrinth, of which Herodotus said, "all the buildings of the Greeks together could not have cost so much. On these monuments, especially of Upper Egypt, we see much that became the model to the Israelite. The ark of the covenant, the cherubim with their extended wings, the holy candlesticks, the show bread, and many parts of the Jewish sacrifices, all appear in the engravings of Thebes.
Art chitecture of Jews was that of Egyptians on a small scale; they had more wood, because Egypt had no Lebanon with cedars. But most enduring monuments are Pyramids, found only in Middle Egypt, generally built on square or triangular bases, well fitted to resist effects of time and flood. Largest is that of Cheops, height feet height of St. Paul's steeple , square base, each side feet; surface covered , square feet, or about 11 acres! Casts no shade at mid-day. Herodotus, height - length of side Strabo, - do.
These pyramids have all one side due north, and others of course fronting cardinal points. Some distance up on north side, there is a small opening, often concealed by marble fitting it, which leads down by a slope, of little more than 26 degrees with the horizon, to a great distance.
In the interior always a well at great depth-a small chamber with sarcophagus sometimes containing bones belonging to bovine species, probably of sacred bulls. Object of the PyJramids? Some say for granaries. Aristotle says they were the works of tyrants-Pliny thinks built for ostentation, and to divert public mind; all refer them to shepherd kings. True cause, for purposes of religion, for burial, and perhaps for astronomical purposes. The sloping way descending at angle of 26 just suits for observation on north star when it passes the meridian below the pole.
Their belief that the soul would again unite with the body after years, made them wish to preserve body; hence art of embalming, and great care in burying; hence dread of the sea; hence splendid sepulchral monuments.
Origin of Egyptian style of Architecture? Character of sculpture and painting? First, grand without grace-latter remarkable for freshness of colors after thousands of years. What race probably inhabited Egypt when centre of the.
World's civilization? IHerodotus says a black race with woolly hair. Are we to conrclude they were negroes? No, his expression mavbeinterpreted dark brozwn with curly hair. Amminianus Marcellinus says, plerique subfusculi sutnt et atrati-color of present Co2pts. Yes, e. Figure of king several times-always same —nothing of negro-more than attendants, nothing still-seem to have rather Grecian profile. Representations on obelisks, heads of sphinxes, and deities, have nothing of the negro.
Painting in sepulchres, fresh as yesterday, prove that the ruling caste was not negro, e. Again, in royal sepulchre at Thebes, explored by Belzoni, there are decapitated persons, all Negroes; those destroying them, red. In this sepulchre we have white, red, and black, most accurately drawn. Two contracts exist, one at Paris, fac-simile of the other at Berlin-in latter Parmenthes, seller, called of dar'kish brown color, and buyer, honey colored or yellowish; same color of buyer, Osarreres, in Parisian.
Nose and face described, but no negro featutres. That different races in Egypt, and that one approaching to white was the ruling race, while negroes were always subjects and slaves. General description of Asia? It stretches from the Frozen Ocean through the temperate zone almost to the equator. Europe stops in Mediterranean-Asia four times as large as Europe-its productions more varied and superior to those of Europe-land more fertile-more incommoded by deserts than Europe.
Arabia and Cobi; not so much as Africa. Describe the two Inountain ranges which for7n the grCand divisions of Asia? They are the Atltaic and the Tauric. From west to east, beginning just above the Caspian sea-sends off branch to north under name of Ural mountains, stretches to the Arctic. The main chain, with mean elevation of 6 or feet, crosses southern Siberia-widening as it goes east, fills the territory of the Tungusians, and the shores of Siberia, losing itself on the shores of the Pacific.
They flow from these two chains of mountains; e. Irtish, Yenesei and Lena, three of largest rivers in old world, rise in Altaic range, and empty their waters in Arctic ocean, through north of Siberia. Out of the same range rise the Oxus and Iaxartes, flowing into the sea of Aral. On the eastern side rise the great rivers of China, Hoangho and Keangkhu, flowing into eastern ocean. Grand divisions gmade by the two chains of qnoznztains? This great table land of Asia, lying between 40 and 50 degrees north latitude, colder than similar latitudes in Europe.
Physical cha'racter of this region? Whole region a sort of prairie-very few trees-too far from market for agriculture-generally fertile-covered with a luxuriant growth of herbage, equal to height of cattle which feed on it. Third g'reat division of Asia? Third or southern division, partly filled up by ramifications of Momnt Taurus, partly to south of this range-extends in shape of a continent to tropic of Cancer; beyond which three great peninsulas Arabia, Hindostan, and Malacca, reach far into torrid zone; comprises the richest and most fertile legions of globe-temperate climate-large rivers-grandest and choicest pro.
Character of the people on great central plains of Asia? Nomads, with tents and encampments, instead of cities and houses. Wealth in sheep, cattle, horses, and camels. Milk and flesh constitute their dietskins, fleece, and hair constitute their clothing. Constantly in motion — always on horseback.
Chapracter of the people of thi'rd division? With few exceptions, agricultural. These were earliest magazines of wealth and civilization. Life of nomads fits them for war; always in open air —untiring horsemen —wants limitedbaggage light-move from region to region with all their flocks and families.
They have been the scourge and renovating power of the nations of the earth. Their history uniform; true descendants of Ishmael-eternal depredators on civilized nations. Most all the conquests in ancient times, except Macedonian and Roman, came from that quarter. Governzzents which they formed? Patriarchal and militarysometimes inmmense; e. Saracen kingdom extended from Morocco and Spain to Hindostan; and successors of Genghis-Khan had armies at same time in Silesia and under wall of China.
Government partakes of nature of a military encampment. Commerce of Asia? Of two kinds; by water and land-the latter principally by caravans. Vast extent of Asiatic continent-predatory habits of nomads-want of navigable rivers, and of timber for boats on table-land-number and extent of deserts-all make large associations necessary for commerce.
These associations are caravans; large military escort-camels principal beasts of burden-have stations of rest called caravansaries-have great routes —cities built and kingdoms enriched by their trade; e. Asia, Commodities carried by caravans?
Not bulky —such as Ist, Precious commodities, e. What nations best situated for commerce? Those that could enjoy both land and sea; e. Phonicia, Tyre, Carthage, and Asia Minor, formed the two ter'mini of the caravan and sea trade. Where was this kingdom, and whence the name? In Asia, between Euphrates and Tigris, and derives its name from tower of Babel. Very warm-rains rarely-requisite moisture supplied by overflowing of the Euphrates, caused by melting of snow and ice in the mountains of Armenia.
How is the country irrigated? By help of canals and lakes, by which the whole plain is filled. This, one cause of persevering energy of Babylonians. These canals so broad as to impede invasion of nomads. Xenophon with 10, men could only cross them on bridges.
Herodotus said it was one of the most fruitful countries on the globe, especially in corn. But like steppes generally, no wood, nor stone, or marble. Who founder? Nimrod who seems to be the first to aspire to empire, and to break up patriarchal government. After this Babylon vanishes, and Assyrian monarchy appears, until finally overthrown by Babylonians. Period of Babylonish, history most inter'esting? Brilliant epoch during latter part of 7th century, B. Origin of Babylonio- Chaldean empire?
The Chaldeans a nomad people from mountains of Taurus and Caucasus, overwhelmed southern Asia, conquered the Syrian and Bab'ylonian plains-made Babylon the seat of empire. With these Chaldeans, Nebuchadnezzar conquered Assyria, overthrew Pharaoh Necho, king of Egypt, at Cercesium on Euphrates-destroyed Jerusalem, carried the Jews in captivity to Babylon, besieged Tyre, and established the greatest empire in the world.
These things occurred in the reigns of Jehoiakim and Zedekiah in Jerusalem, and were foretold by the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Jeremiah favored by Nebuchadnezzar. Dream of Nebzuchadnezzar and interpretation by Daniel? Epitome of great empires. See Daniel, ch.
Such as nonmads form when they become stationary-despotic. Kings never associated familiarly with subjectsshowed themselves but seldom, and then surrounded by pomp and magnificence. Does not the splendor of Babylon seem incompatible with the condition of the people supposed to have built it?
It is a peculiarity of Asiatic despotisms, that they concentrate power and magnificence. The conquered are slaves, forced to work at will oi the despot. All the artists, mechanics, carpenters, and workmen of skill, were engaged at Babylon from the four quarters of the world.
All the world was robbed by Nebuchadnezzar, to beautify and enrich Babylon. Hence results here which could not hlave taken place under other circumstances. Description of Babylon? Built after the model of a regular encampment; square form, 15 miles to the side, surrounded with a ditch and walls feet in height, and 87 thick, 25 gates on each side, 3 towers between every two gates; corresponding to the gates, 25 streets cut at right angles, 25 streets running in opposite direction, making squares; counting some of outer squares, Walls made of brick and bitumen taken from ditch.
Euphrates runs from north to south, and guarded by walls on banks similar to outer walls, in which 25 great gates opposite the streets. Was the poprulation of Babylon as larg'e as the dimnenions of the city twould indicate?
No, city was very open-streets feet wide-each square of buildings was three-fifths of a mile in length, and all the inner space was in gardens-this one reason of its capacity to stand a long siege. The population at most flourishing epoch was not computed at more than 1,,; less than the population of London, and several of the cities of Asia. Hacging- garldens of NVebuchadcnezzar? Were in front of the royal palace, consisted of terraces raised one above another, with stairs 10 feet wide-these terraces supported by large buttresses covered with pebbles and earth-then with a platform of lead to prevent water fromn passing-then with earth sufficient to produce largest trees-on the top was an aqueduct supplied with water from river; height feet.
Cau6se of their erection? Ainyite the Mede, wife of Nebuchadnezzar, wanted something to break dull monotony of plain, and like the mountains of her native land; hence these gardens. There were two splendid royal palaces, one three and the other seven and a half miles in circumference, besides the temple and tower of Belus, supposed to have been the celebrated tower of Nimrod mentioned in scripture. Tower of Belus or Baal, i. Nebuchadnezzar enlarged the temple with immense buildings, more than a mile in circumference-surrounded it with walls two and a half miles in circuit, supplied with brazen gates-which were made in part of the brazen sea, the brazenr pillars, and the brazen vessels taken from the temple of Jerusalem.
All the buildings in Babylon were of brick, and Moses says tower of Bable was of brick, and on plain of Shinar. Character of Babylonish. Influenced by their building materials-had neither stone nor wood, and therefore all monuments were of brick; hence the absence of the colu1mnn, which stamps character in Grecian architecture-hence ruins are but heaps of broken bricks.
Upon many of the bricks inscriptions are found-supposed by some to be contracts. Sculpture scarcely existed here, because of want of marble and stone. General character of the city bunder Nebuchadnezzar? Most magnificent city on earth. Called in scripture, the great-the praise of the whole earth —the beauty of the Chalcdees' excellency-tthe glor'y oJ kingdoms-the golclen city —a laldy-the acldy of kingdoms-a queen for ever!
IIas any city been erected inz mnodern, times sim2ilar to Babylon, and which can to azy extent illustrate the account given of Babylon by Herodotius? Was the sittuation of Babylon favorable to commnerce? Exceedingly so; spoken of in scripture as a land of traffic-a city of mwerchants.
Ezekiel 17, 4. Euphrates poured into Persian gulf, infinitely superior to Arabian gulf for commerce, which is long, narrow, and rocky, [H. Porter says sounds of voices and rustling of silks remind one of swarms of bees. Bagdad is still great caravansary of Asia. Alay it not be doubtedl whether Euphrates was navigable below Babylon?
It is not now; but from Isaiah, we suppose it was under Nebuchadnezzar and his successors. Chaldeans are spoken of as exulting in their ships. Religion of the Babylonians? Of the most idolatrous character. Three stages of idolatry: 1st, worship of sun, moon and stars; 2d, image worship; 3d, hero worship. Explain origin of the first? Heavenly bodies naturally arrest attention of the mind and produce devotion, e. Again, wide plain of Babylon, pastoral life. Great observatory on tower of Belus increased this propensity.
Origin of second stage, image worship? We require something to strike senses-hence nmaterialism of most religions-hence the denunciations in the Bible against worshipping stocks, and stones, and graven imnages. Again, this image worship produced more complexity, and favored priestcraft.
Principal images worshippecd in Babylon? Those of the Suz, and six planets, Satrn,. Jupiter, MICars, 3Ie cury, Venus, and the 71loon, Temple of Belus or Baal was supposed to have been erected to the Sun, but after time of Nebuchadnezzar it was in honor of the planet Jupiter, and the golden image, more than 40 feet high, in sitting posture, was probably of the divinity, supposed to reside in the planet. Origin qof third stage of idolatry, hero worship?
Great love and gratitude, especially after death, which we have for those who have rendered great services to their country. What kind of learning in Babylon? Principally judicial astrology. That naturally leads to this study? A belief that the stars are instinct with divinity, and that it is their province to supervise the affairs of this world. State of mnorals in Babylon?
Excessively corrupt-their banquets were the most disgusting debauches, e. MIilitar2y character of the Babylonians? Under Nebuchadnezzar and his father, best soldiers in the world-appropriately styled in scripture, the hagmmer of the whole earth —the battle-axe-the weapons of war, proper to break in pieces nations, and to destroy kingdoms.
In 70 years totally changed, and far inferior io the hardy mountaineers under Cyrus from Persia and Media. How came the Chaldeans, a nomad race, simple in their habits, and hardy warriors, thus to degenerate in so short a time in both mnoral and military point of view?
Universally the case with great empires formed by shepherd kings. A rude, ignorant people, suddenly acquiring immense wealth, are sure to indulge in every extravagance and vice; they can only enjoy their possessions as senscualists —all self-government is lost-the most shameless extravagance prevails.
Herodotus tells us that certain districts were condemned to furnish certain things. We are told that Tritontoechmus, the satrap of Babylon in Xerxes' time, devoted four cities to the maintenance of his dogs. Hence Jeremiah calls Babylon the golden cup that made all the earth drunken, and all the nations mad.
Do wealth and luxury nzow produce the same effects as formnerly? Modern civilized nations are not injured by these-they are benefited; it is a semi-barbarous, rude, unenlightened people alone who are corrupted by them. Successors of lNebuchadnezzar?
Neriglissar ruled four years; followed by son, a minor, who was murdered after nine months. Nabonid or Laby Netus the Belshazzar of Daniel , and grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, was placed on throne: his mother Nitocris, wife of Evil-Merodach, regent during his minority.
Iowt was war with l1cedes and Persians brought on? By hunting excursion of Evil-Merodach, and an attack he made on some Medes with a garrison sent to the relief of a frontier town of Babylon. A hardy race north of Babylonish empire, led on by Cyrus, the greatest general of his day. Thus was founded Medo-Persian empire on the ruins of the Babylonish. Fate of the Jews? In the first year of Cyrus's reign B. Fate of the city of Bcabylon? It has realized the awful prophecies of Isaiah ch.
All modern travellers represent it as a haunt for wild beasts and owls, and the inhabitants of the east regard it as as a place visited by spirits, and are very fearful of passing the night therelitcr'ally verifying the prophecies. What becamne the capital of Iecldo —Persian emprie? Susa, and Bablyon began immediately to decline. Inportance of histor y of Phenicia? Most interesting in consequence of her great trade, peculiar government, and peaceable policy.
Because history of one of latter is the history of the others. History of Phoenicia can be made out from no other nations. Wlo were the Phacnicians supposed to be descendants of? Ham-originally divided into 11 families. Sidon son of Canaan, the founder of Sidon, the most powerful city at first.
Situation andc; extent? Phoenicia proper very small-on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, about miles in extent from south to north-from Tyre to Aradus-never more than 20 in breadth. Full of bays and harborsL — in some places high mountains covered with fine timbers-used in ships and houses; many islands near the shore almost as celebrated as the main land. What were the principal cities?
Sidon and Tyre; and besides these there was such a number of other cities, as that the whole territory was dotted with them, exhibiting appearance almost of an unbroken city. Sidon was oldest, and no doubt founded Tyre on main land, which became greater than parent. Tyre on the island, near the old city, was early founded, but did not attain its greatest size till old Tyre was ruined by Nebuchadnezzar; then grew up as Venice did when Huns drove the Italians into island on which it is situated.
New Tyre was taken by Alexander, and finally ruined by trade centring in Alexandria of Egypt. Not very warlike; territory too small; dwelt in cities from the earliest times-depended on commerce for wealth-used mercenaries in war, as Carthage did at later period. Government of Phscnicia? A sort of federative system —an al. Tyre became the undoubted head of the alliance in Nourishing period between time of Solomon and Nebuchadnezzar Ezekiel, ch. Although government of each city was kingly, not despotic-commerce requires liberty.
Magistrates in each citymet sometimes in general congress at Tripolis, to treat of common affairs. Religion anzd p1ricsthoocl? Hercules was principal God-there was a numerous and powerful priesthood, e. Sichoes, husband of Dido, and brother-in-law of king Pygmalion being put to death, caused the revolution, which ended in planting colony at Carthage H.
We are told in I. Kings, xviii. On immense wealth created by their commerce. This well described by Ezekiel in his denunciation against Tyre ch. Tyre represented as enriched by traffic with gold and silver, and precious stones-as clothed with fine garments, and sinning in consequence of her ill-gotten wealth.
With her wealth Phoenicia subsidized other nations, and procured her soldiers by hire, e. Ezekiel, xxvii. Character of their commerce? Both sea and land trade; situated at eastern terminus of the Mediterranean, they of course pushed their sea trade west, whilst they enjoyed a caravan trade with both Asia and Africa. Wlictt their policyfor extending their marsitimnc tcade? They planted colonies along the coast of the Mediterranean, and in the islands, and by means of these they extended their commerce even to Spain and England.
So that in the language of Ezekiel, the cities of Phoenicia were "replenished and made very glorious in the midst of the seas. Phoenicia not in midst of her colonies, as Carthage was; moreover, she was never very powerful in consequence of small territory, hence her colonies were free, but traded with her because of the immense market which she possessed in Asia and Africa. Which the most important of her colonies in a commezrciallpoint of view? Gades in Spain. Curious fact that nearly a thousand years before Christ, Spain was to Phoenicia what Mexico and Peru became in modern times to Spain.
What the western terminus ojf the tr'ade of Phaenicia? They traded beyond the straits of Gibraltar to the tin and amber islands. England is conjectured to be the former; the latter not exactly known -they certainly went far into the Atlantic. Trade on the Ar'abian Gulf or Red Sea? This trade rose out of connection with the Jews-carried on through the ports of Eloth and Ezion-Geber 1 Kings, ix. What was the celebrated tr'ade of the Jews to the land of Ophir, mentioned in the Scripture?
Heeren thinks Ophir general name for the rich countries of the south, on the African, Arabian and Indian coasts. This trade carried on chiefly by the intervention of Phoenicians. Political relations between Phmnicia and the Jews? Of the most amicable character. Hence no wars between them. Have not some supposed that the Phceznicians circumnavigated the continent of Aftica? Herodotus tells us that Necho, king of Egypt, having finished his canal to Red Sea, sent some Phoenician mariners through that sea to Indian ocean, with orders to double Cape of Good Hope, and came in at Gibraltar, which was accomplished in three years-they stopped each year to raise supply of provisions-they told what Herodotus did not credit, that sun passed to r'ight hand.
If this voyage was made, no good resulted, for short time after Nebuchadnezzar ruined the great Tyre. Give an account of the land trade of Phcnicia? Almost as great as sea trade; three branches, 1st, Arabian, East Indian and. First very important-Arabia immense country; large portion desert; but Arabia Felix in southern part one of the richest countries of the ancient world, and as large as France.
This country traded with East Indies-spices, gold and precious stones, native products, suited to caravan trade. Job supposed to have been Arabian; well acquainted with miniing. In trade with Egypt Phoenicians supplied wine; Egypt supplied cotton, embroidered work. This trade carried on by caravans, first to Thebes and then to Memphis. Second branch includes trade with Syria, Palestine, Babylon, and Assyria, by land-that with Babylon greatest-supposed that Balbec and. Palmyra were two caravan stations in the Syrian desert.
These two cities in Jewish annals are ascribed to King Solomon, under the names of Baalath and Tadmor, and although their most celebrated ruins belong to a more modern epoch, yet there is no doubt they were great caravan stations in the time of the Jews and Phoenicians, in trade between these latter countries and the Babylonians and Assyrians. Third branch of trade, with Armenia and the north, not so great as the other'two, but important.
Did the Phcznicians carry on this trade by their own catravans and t'raders, or did they enmtploy other nations? They hired other nations. Prophet in speaking of Tyre always speaks of other nations coning cand b6inging their wares to the Tyrians.
Her dyes purest in ancient world. Decline and down:fall of Phanicia? First, conquered by Nebuchadnezzar, then by Alexander-her trade injured by rise of the Grecian cities, and power of Carthage, and subsequently by the great trade of the Mediterranean centring at Alexandria, under successors of Alexander. She was one of the most civilized nations of her day-supposed to be inventor of alphabet, which Cadmus carried into Greece. Voltaire says a trading people like the Phoenicians, who first carried on commerce upon a large scale, must learn to write, if only to keep their accounts and traffic with others.
By means of immense trade and colonization, Phoenicians acquired and disseminated all the civilization of their age. Phoenicia stands, too, an almost solitary instance in the ancient world of a nation rising to wealth and splendor, and pushing her religion, her institutions, and her civilization, over the known world, by the pacific means of trade and colonization. Physical character of Europe compared with Asia and Africa? Not more than one-fourth of Asia in size; much smaller than Africa; in number and grandeur of natural productions, inferior to both; cultivable soil less fertile.
How stands the comparison in other respects? Europe far surpasses the other two in character of people, and in all productions of art. Asia presents one unbroken chain of grinding despotisms from earliest times. In Europe, always struggling for liberty and best forms of government-simple inventions in Asia, complex in Europe, e.
When Asia has first invented, she has rarely made any valuable use of the invention, e. It's a fascinating contradiction that liberal feminists live. Earlier that opening day, at an "Unconventional Women" event sponsored by a coalition of femi- nists' groups, members of Congress talked about the differ- ences between men and women. Men, for instance, simply can't bring to the legislative table the same concerns that women do. They, apparently, are biologically incapable of realizing that men and women have different health needs.
And so, congresswomen will, in the same breath,' praise their own efforts on gender-parity healthcare reform because there are real differences between men and women and also complain about the lack of equal pay and the failure to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment; a relic left by-the - trash heap of history somewhere around leisure suits and disco.
Some women have commented that perhaps Michelle Obama was being "post-feminist. I wouldn't go that far. Like her husband, who has been known to talk about the impor- tance of fatherhood, Michelle doesn't go far enough. I presume that's because even if she wanted to, she couldn't: The party would- n't let her. It's the reason, I assume, that Barack Obama can't bring himself to do a full-on Bill Cosby and challenge men and specifically black men, because he can to be responsible fathers.
He could talk passionately, open- ing up about what it was like to grow up without one. The Obamas know what works - good, solid, traditional families with a riom and a dad. They are also in the rare position of actually being able to say that. But they won't. While some women whine that they won't see one of their own become president next year, they should really be challenging the Obamas to tell the honest truth about family values.
Kathryn Lopez is the editor of National Review Online www. She can be contacted at klopez nationalrevievw. The same vendor had And when festival-goers got tired had set up a campfire to show how the grill, at several booths. Sweet tea -huge oak tree, dulcimer players sat in wooden swords and other playthings of wandering the booths, they could soldiers in the field might have sur- was also in large supply.
There were two formal the sound of Saturday in the park. One was a black vin- In front of the canvas tents that bor- Saturday, with ribs, chicken, catfish, and roll and more, and another, qui- Shangri-la Continued From Page 1A inch centers, and we had a metal roof Safety measures, Hatcher said, will when it was all finished, and it would to put on. It came with everything but be taken to ensure that no one acci- be a very nice place to develop a the labor to put it up," he said. I'm glad to see it.
I went out The floor of the main building was into the icy water far below. The with Chuck Hatcher the other day made of concrete and marble chips of overlook, he said, will have a deck and it looked pretty much like it had different colors.
He explained how where people can sit and look into' grown back up as a jungle. The county G plans to eventually immediately around the buildings "The 'stones had been mixed open the entire acres for low- and continue to work on the property. Then they will depend, in large measure on Wiggins, Reese and others back in took an inch of this mixture, put it grants to do and pay for the work the s drew praise from the wife over the top of the slap and swept it over time.
That's where you get the color. Williams helped construct the be done, Hatcher said, but the end "I had a chance to visit Shangrila patio outside that building, as well. Williams also helped section off many times about some of the things One Sunday evening They collabo- Shangri-la. I found it to be a very "I was working there from the rated on some of the design elements. Graham would bring drawings of was onc a very thick wooded area. Back then, it was some of the things he'd seen in his, Helms,- now 88, remembers fondly jut another job, but I'Ve wondered travels, and they'd work it out.
The the experience she had as a young many time since what would become 'angular building out there had a tiki- mother of three. I'm glad they'll be using it tower, a sort of Polynesian,. South "I found it very fascinaung and again. He was view. Grahamin had planned to get some "Back then, you got what they paid 'engineers involved, but by the time you and were glad to get it.
My wife, rifled crickets and a cane pole there at restore not only the dock, but the had a direct connection to the prepa-, Creamer vehicle. Both trucks started Sarah, fixed my lunch mostly ham daylight and fished 'till work time walkway that existed there in ration of Shangri-la.
I brought a Shangri-la's glory days. There wasn't time to cooler and put the fish on ice until I The grant now in hand will be used tor for Graham Aviation, and I The Perkins vehicle came to rest go out and get something. We'd start cpuld get them home. There was lots to reroof the main building and get helped work on it," Reese said. Graham and his employees edge, according to reports. The FHP report also indicated that, in the time, and had groceries, a light Jackson County Parks and ing visitors from entering them.
There were lots of parties out there Perkins' case, alcohol was a factor. It also picked up serial numbers on the bombs and even fingerprints, which were matched to a member of the experiment team. Tim Close, commander of the St. Petersburg Coast Guard sta- tion, called it impressive. The underwater vehicle scanned the bottom of Tampa Bay and deliv- ered photographs, including 3-D images. The information will help the Coast Guard and Navy identify new or potentially threatening devices in the Bay and keep ports, bridges and waterways safe.
It can run up to 15 hours and dive to feet, traveling at a little less than 6 mph, she said. When its mission is complete, it returns to a pickup point, and infor- mation it has collected is down- loaded. Petersburg to research topics such as port security and energy. Young said the technology will. Mexico and ports on the west coast of Florida," he said. Marianna, FL www. Born Aug. Ed's career was in radio sales, marketing and manage- ment.
At the time of his death, he was president and general. Ed was passionate about his Texas Longhorns and,attended National Football Championships of , and But even the Longhorns took second place' to the love he felt for family and friends.
His children, par- ents, brother and large circle of friends always knew they could count on him for love, support and laughter. Ed was a York Rite Mason. He was preceded in death by his brother, Steve Cearley. He was looking for- ward to the birth of his grand- son in January.
Bob McKibben offi- ciating. Memorials may be sent to the American' Heart Association. Mariannia, FL www. Dickson Mrs. She was born Oct. She had been in declining health for a number of years and welcomed the opportunity to be with her long-departed family and friends. She is survived by a son, Billy, and his wife, Harriet, of Tallahassee; two grandchil- dren,.
The family received friends from 6 to 8 p. The funeral service will be at 4 p. United- Methodist Church, with the Rev. Ryan Martin, the Rev. Mary Vance and the Rev. Charles Riddles officiating. Interment will follow in Shady Grove Cemetery.
Billy; Harriet, Beth, and David would like to extend a special, heartfelt thank-you to the staff of. Jackson County Hospital, Dr. Rick Bruner and Dr. Mark Akerson for their caring support and assistance during the time that they were needed. All family, friends, and neighbors are invited to attend and share in the glory of her long and good life.
Memorial contributions may be made to Covenant Hospice of Marianna. She was a native of Georgia and had moved to this area in She was a devoted mother and wife and loved her church where she had enjoyed being a member of the choir. She was an accomplished cook and loved to sew. The local service for Mrs.
Toomer was Saturday, Aug. A funeral service will also be held Tuesday, Sept. Interment will fol- low in the Fairview Memorial Gardens. Expressions of sympathy may be submitted online at www. Johnson Mr. Lloyd 0.
Johnson, 88, a native and lifelong resident of Sneads, passed away Saturday, Aug. He had retired as a charge aide with the Florida State Hospital in Chattahoochee. He was a U. He loved fishing and repair- ing outboard motors and other. Visitation with the family will be Sunday, Aug. Services will be Monday, Sept. Lanier-Andler Funeral Home is in charge of arrange- ments.
These are not taxes or government- required charges. Some agents impose add'L fees. Offer available on select phones. Limited-time offer. Allow 60 days for fulfillment Card may be used only in the U. Unlimited voice services: Unltd voice svcs are provided solely for live dialog between two individuals. No additional discounts are available with unlimited plan. All rights reserved. Mason attends Hope School but those who know him know he expe- riences life to the fullest every day. It was for that reason Grand Ridge Assistant Principal Phyllis Daniels invited Neel to by the keynote speak- er at the school's athletic banquet honoring the Indian athletes.
Mason is diagnosed with cerebral palsy and attends Hope School where he is part of the Special Olympics team there. Daniels said the decision was easy, "I get to see Mason most mornings when his bus comes by our school.
He is constantly upbeat and a tremen- dous source of encouragement to me. He is part of the Special Olympics at Hope School and has kept me updat- ed about their accomplishments. When he does good he is excited, but he is equally excited and complimen- tary when his fellow students are suc- cessful.
Mason is naturally energized and motivational. Thought he is con- fined to a wheelchair, his outlook on life is uplifting. He seemed to be an individual that could relate to our athletes and help them focused on their abilities. She speaks highly of his outlook on life, "He's very outgoing, very friendly, loves getting out in the community and never meets a stranger.
He told them how much he'd like to just be able to "walk" onto the football field and admonished them to not take their talent for granted but to really be thankful for their ability. After his remarks, there were very few dry eyes and Neel received a standing ovation. Bottom left, members of the Gulf State Guards marched and fired off an occasional volley of shots as the marched in the RiverFest Parade.
Bottom center, Billy,Pigott makes a toss while playing horse shoes. Bottom right, Steven Sisley towered above the festivities during the parade. The shel- ter hours are Monday through Friday - and Saturday You can also calf the shelter at for more informa- tion or visit www. We are always in I volunteers. Interaction with the pets everything from sedentary activities like and petting cats to walking dogs.
We al dogs that would love to run and play ca Another great way to help support the by. Our mailing r Pets. Perry Flowers of Wewahitchka. An October wedding is planned. Flowers is an environmental manag- er employed with Franklin County Health Department. Staley-Roberts wedding is Saturday Mrs. Linda Biggers of Navarre and Mr. Roberts, son of Lou and Kathy Roberts, of Marianna. She is a' Brent is a graduate of Marianna High School. He is presently attending the University of West Florida and plans to graduate in the spring of , with a B.
He is employed with Select Motor Cars in Pensacola. The couple will exchange vows Saturday, Sept. A reception will immediately follow the cere- mony at the Lodge. All family and friends are cordially invit- ed to attend. He is the son of the late Melvin C. Heffner and Brenda L. Heffner of Marianna. Grandparents of the bride-elect are the late Charles 0. The prospective groom is the grandson of the late Mr. Charles W. Lockey Jr. Melvin P. She is employed with A Wild Hair in Marianna.
The wedding will take place Sept. There will be a reception Sept. She is the daughter of Dr. Jeremy and Shelaina Lewis of Marianna. Rodney and Delilah Lewis of Grand Ridge. Paternal great- grandparents are the Late J. Guests enjoyed hamburgers, hot dogs, and birthday cake. Savannah's special guests included Hanson celebrates eighth Gable Hanson celebrated his eighth birthday on Aug.
He celebrated his birthday at the home of his aunt, Judy Williams, on Aug. At birth, she weighed six pounds, six ounces, and was 19V2 inches in length. There is constant research being done to find new ways and medicines to help us live better lives. The Olympic Games brought together peo- ple from the corners of the world to compete against each ,1 other in various sport activi- ties.
There were people of many colors, languages and nationalities. Murpi I began to wonder, "What be aro would be the one thing that all respect these people have in com- one I mon? Of course I was for many of us who believe in Penns: God, there is hope for an even of mn greater future after this life.
Steele This past week I experi- of gro enced once again the impact Penns that death can bring. When cated my wife called me on my cell Longh phone to inform me of. His warm per- respect sonality and caring style made ate th him easy and comfortable to friend: www.
Gable Hanson Hawaiian theme. Fifty of his closest family and friends attended. Kaitlyn Nichole George ' turned 10 years old. She is the daughter of Jamie and Anjie George of Altha. Maternal grandparents are [ the late George and Ann Waldroff of Altha. He is the son of Adrienne Fisher and George Wallace. A "Kung Fu Panda" party was held Aug.
His older brother, Destiny Dubose, and a host of fam- ily and friends will be in attendance. From the top. Donnie Edenfield of Altha. Paternal grandparents are Phyllis and Paul Sellers of Marianna. Kinsley was welcomed home by family and friends and big sister, Anna and Bama. He always showed :t for others, and every- knew seemed to highly :t him. He was a man of y and good character.
Ed's death ds me of how important o treat our family mem- and friends in a table way and appreci- eir companionship and ship. Perhaps by putting things in the proper perspective we will learn to treasure each minute, hour, day and year that we are blessed to live.
Another lesson we should learn is not to waste time on frivolous, petty, unimportant situations that make life unpleasant. There is nothing wrong with having money, success and the opportunity to live a good life, but how you treat others will determine how you are remembered when your life is over. When anyone I know dies, my thoughts usually are about their character. If you are an attractive individual and you feel your body will remain the same as you age, don't bet on it!
If you are a young man who is feeling strong and invinci- ble, wait until you reach your middle age years! One of the reasons charac- ter is so important is that even though your looks and body may change, your character can remain the same. Whether you are rich or poor; whether you are black, white, yellow or red; or whether you are from the United States or another part of the world; Death is an equalizer!
Ed Cearley was a business man and a leader with whom I talked about many subjects; from radio business, to health. He was my friend, and a man of good, strong character. There are no exceptions. All other birthdays, including those signifying special birthdays such as 40th or 50th, must run as paid advertise- ments. One photo is allowed per wedding. One photo is allowed per engagement. Anniversaries Free for the 50th, 75th and any anniversaries above Anniversaries in this category may include up to two photos an early years of marriage photo and a present-day picture.
Deadline for Sunday is Wednesday at noon. Send sub- missions to editorial jcfloridan. Box , Marianna, FL, The Jackson County Floridan reserves the right to edit all advertising and news content submitted for publication. She joined other high school juniors and sen- iors from 36 different states and other countries, including Puerto Rico, Germany and Brazil. All students that participated in the Presidential Classroom program were split up in caucuses to participate in a hands-on "National Security Crisis" with their peers.
They also went through many seminars and crossfire's, debating constitutional rights and current government issues. Lang was also able to observe the American political process on Capitol Hill, and visit various intelligence organizations and many of historical sites. She says the trip was a very educational and exciting, and allowed her to make many friends, with whom she is still in touch.
I was once very interested in architec- ture, but now I am leaning towards political science or national intelligence," said Lang. Kennedy Gravesite and the Tomb of the Unknowns a. If it's not safe for you, it's not safe for your pet. Availability at these shelters will be limited and residents are strongly urged to be self-sufficient in caring for their families, including their animals.
HSUS is also monitoring the path of Gustav. Its animal rescue team includes personnel and equipment that can be deployed if the impact of the storm sur- passes the capability of local animal agencies and resources. The failure to plan for your pets' safety can lead to tragedy. During Hurricane Katrina residents were forced to abandon dogs, cats and other animals by the tens of thousands, according to a HSUS press release.
Fortunately, simple steps can ensure that pets will not be left in a dan- gerous, situation. Kitts will be have a book sign- ing Saturday, Sept. Kitts will be on hand to sign copies of her novel, "Red. According to Kitts, "Reader response to this series has been tremendous. It takes place right here in the South and a lot of people like that. Current photos and descriptions of pets.
Up-to-date identification, including an additional tag with the phone number of someone out of the area in the event the pet becomes lost. Medications, medical records and a first aid kit stored in a waterproof con- tainer. Sturdy leashes, harnesses and carriers to transport pets safely as well as blankets or towels for bedding and warmth.
Carriers should be large enough to com- fortably house your pet for several hours or even days. For more information about disaster preparedness, visit humanesociety. Schol Supritndn DanySi s hsanone Moda, ep. School ule Fida, Ag.
Breakfast and networking start at 7 a. Jackson County has 85 elected positions-town councils from the 11 munici- palities across Jackson County, county commission- ers, school board members, judicial officials, constitu- tional officers and state legis- lators representing the coun- ty. This annual event affords community members the opportunity to meet those involved in their elected, local government. The featured speaker will be Mark Wilson, president and chief executive officer of the Florida Chamber of Commerce.
A native of Illinois, Wilson received his B. Prior to joining'the Florida Chamber of Commerce in , Wilson served as vice president of the Chicagoland Chamber and served two years with the U. Chamber of Commerce. Wilson resides in Tallahassee with his wife, two sons and daughter. In addi- - tion to the master's courses, McMillion took some extra P courses in special education, to help her better care for her dis- Sh abled son.
Mc She received her A. Stickler, M. Board Certified Dermatologist Two convenient locations Jenks Ave. See the difference If a loved one has been injured or developed an illness as a result of neglect or abuse in a nursing home, call for a free consultation. This may include bed sores, fall, malnutrition, dehydration, and other problems. Bearman L. Toll Free: N. The kids and adults in attendance. Each day began with a large music group and an intro- duction to a Bible story and "Life Focus.
The community service project for Vacation Bible School was to provide school supplies for the children in the New Hope Church Community. The Church was able to give each student in attendance, school supplies. Luther Farmer, to God be the Glory for all He has done! Free dent removal and straightening on any pieces we silverplate.
Broken pieces can be soldered and missing parts can be replaced. Bring in your heirlooms today so you can display and use them again with pride or pass them along with love. Jon R. Ward, M. Harriet met Mrs.
Crawford who initiated the idea of the. Christian Debutante Master Dedication Commission in the late '60s. Crawford by volunteering her time and typing materials for her first DMC Directory. Harriet's mother, Mrs. Brown met Mrs. Her first involve- ment was becoming a "Queen of May Contestant. In , Bishop Frank C. Under his leadership and the sup- port of presiding elders, pastors, commissioners and laity, the DMC was organized throughout the 1 Ith Episcopal District including the Bahamas.
A dedication ceremony was held each year, at the site of the Christian Education Congress on the Sunday evening prior to the opening session. The Christian Dedication Ceremony is not a social event, but a religious and spiritual celebration. During the ceremony, young men and young ladies publicly dedicated their lives to greater and more effective, contin- ued Christian service now and in the years ahead.
Over young men and young ladies-participated in the ceremony. Brown and her daughter completed eight years of dedicated service. Bishop Adams honored Mrs. Brown says she will always cherish the memories of the DMC activities and the friendships gained during her 30 years of service.
As the younger leaders take the leadership, always remember, just call, if you ever need a helping hand," said Brown. Barfield has worked at the college since , starting as Switchboard Operator. Now that we know of the results of both of these crucial projects, I feel confident in saying that no career employee.
Pat has become one of Chipola's most valuable employees because of her capacity- and willingness to work for the good of all. She lakes pride in her work and seeks always to pres- ent the college at its best. While there are many deserving people at Chipola, no one is more deserving than Pat Barfield this year. Barfield has four children, four step-children, 10 grand- children, eight step-grandchil- dren, and four.
The Employee of the Year recognizes the exceptional work of Chipola's career service employees: Candidates are nominated by fellow employees for exhibiting courtesy, motiva- tion and professionalism. Employees of Chipola College were recognized for years of service during the first staff meeting of the school year on Aug. Employees were awarded certificates in five-year increments. Mosley and Wendy L. Not pictured: Tammy Neal. Not pictured: Rose Parramore, Lee B. Shook and Dr.
Gene Prough. The Family of Eugene Land Would like to express our sincere "Thanks" to all our dear friends and neighbors and church families who truly comforted our hearts with prayers and kind deeds of love during this time of our loss. May God richly bless you all. God Bless. A consult appointment is necessary. Appointments now available! Not pictured: Carol Saunders. Sarah Clemmons. Save Lives. Give Blood. Visit us online at the new cfloridan. Whether as a first-timer, or Cha a veteran, you will need to Br prepare your garden spot in the same way.
First, make a plan to plant what you and your family like to prepare and eat. Write down the names of the vegetables and allocate space for each, by what they grow in-rows or beds. If preparing raised beds for the first time, or in a new garden spot, take a soil sample and send it to a reputable lab.
Pull your samples soon and be able to apply any needed lime or fertiliz- ers in a timely manner. Lime usually takes two to three months to dissolve and become available to the plants. Practice field sanita- tion-remove all summer- grown plants first. Clear a strip around the garden at least six feet wide so that thrips, whiteflies, aphids will not have instant or immediate access to your fresh, green vegetables.
Weed control in strips will help cut down on host plants for these insects. Use resistant varieties of the cool season crops when they are available. Check with your Extension Agent for a list of disease resistant hybrids that are offered to the homeowner. Mosaic viruses and spotted wilt viruses have no chemical cures presently. Some beans, snow peas, and English peas are resistant to certain diseases, but will need to be moni- tored for fungi after leaves form.
Use fungicide treated seed to help ensure a good stand. Some yellow squash crooknecks and straightnecks, such as Prelude and Mtlti-Pik, are resistant to mosa- ic viruses, but will still need insecti- cides to control the rindworms, cucumber beetles, and others that may attack the stalks and young fruits. Another crop that can be planted in the fall is Irish potatoes. Seed pota- toes may have to be special-ordered through your garden or farm supply store.
Use fungicide treated seed pieces to avoid germination and early disease problems. Plant a small amount in a short row or two and prepare to cover the plants, if early frosts or freezes occur. Potatoes can be harvested within days of planting, even earlier for "new" crop spuds.
Insects are still considered to be a problem on potatoes, so monitor for potato weevils and others such as flea beetles and tuberworms. Rotate to areas in the garden that have not had potatoes or sweet potatoes in three years or more. The phone number is ; e-mail is jacksonmg ifas.
Larry Lang, Commander; Capt. Master Sgt. Bryan Segers, Color Guard. Following a presentation of the colors by the squadron color guard, local CAP leadership of the unit explained that their mission is to serve America by developing our nation's youth; accomplishing local, state and national missions; and informing our citizens to the importance of aerospace education. It was a dominant performance by the Tigers, who rolled up rushing yards and held the Pirates to just yards total for the game, which ended with a running clock in the fourth quarter.
We'll have to exe- cute better to beat them. Antrell Wright capped the first scoring drive for Graceville with a, yard run on the first play of the second period. Treyshaun White's 2-point conver- sion run made it The Bulldogs struck first blood when Junior Tre Long took the opening kick off 90 yards for a touchdown for a lead The Jags answered on their next drive with a yard touchdown pass and the game was tied The Bulldogs' next drive was halted on a fumble that was recovered by East Gadsden, though Marianna escaped any damage when once again Long came through with an interception at the 6-yard line.
Long returned the ball to the yard line where the Bulldog offense came out with senior Dustin Larkin under center. We got tired early, then Graceville got on a roll and we started moving like we were in quicksand. Sneads coach to another score seven plays later otn a 2-yard run by White. The 2-point play came on a pass from Justin Miles to DarrellOlds for a lead with on the clock. I A yard kickoff return for a touchdown by Mark Lawson appeared to get Sneads back into the game, but the Tigers' stormed right back down the field on their next possession to quell that notion.
Graceville dro e 68 yards on five plays, with Wright scoring on a yard run off of an' option pitch from. Florian Litim got the ball. Battles then scurried for 17 yards to the yard line of the Jags. On 3rd-and-i, it was R. Bowers who picked up the first down. The Bulldogs failed to capitalize on their next set of downs and turned the ball over on downs.
The Bulldogs started their next drive at the East Gadsden yard line. Junior Fidel Montgomery came on as quarterback for this series but the Bulldogs were unable to put together a drive, forcing a punt. East Gadsden was in the end zone on its next play on a yard pass completion. It was East Gadsden over the Bulldogs early in the second quarter.
Marianna punted on their next possession and with left to play in the first half, East Gadsden put up another six points on a Graceville's Justin Miles rolls out of the pocket away from a pair of Sneads. GHS won A yard pass from Miles to Olds moved the ball into Sneads.
After the onslaught was done, Graceville had outgained Sneads to 34 in the first half. Sneads coach Don Dowling said that his team simple was not as well- conditioned as the Tigers. They did not post a win either. Both teams were held scoreless in the first quarter of play, but it was a set of broken tackles that allowed the Vernon Yellow Jackets to put the first points on the board. The Jaguars added a field goal to take a lead into the locker room at the half.
With time running out in the final quarter, Montgomery picked up the final scored of the game on a yard run. On the night, the Bulldogs had total yards on the night with of those on the ground. Rushing for the Bulldogs was R. Bowers with 50 yards, followed by Coco Borders with Montgomery had 36 yards with a touchdown and Lockhart was on the board with.
We got everybody on film and we can watch that and get ready for next week. We played everybody about half the game and it's about has hot as it's been so Marianna Bulldogs player go through a drill during a practice this summer. MHS lost to East Gadsden 2. Floridan File Photo now we've got to get ready to play a whole game. After his team. The Hornets allowed two long kickoff returns by the Bulldogs deep into Cottondale territory to set up a pair of touchdowns.
They also watched Freeport fake "Special teams was the turning point in the game. They got way too much off of bad special teams. When you miss practice, that's one of the things that suffers and it showed. When you miss prac- tice, that's one of the things that suf- fers and it showed. Five plays later, Hendrickson scored from four yards out on a 4th- and-goal play.
After the Bulldogs faked the extra point and converted a 2-point play, they led with on the first quarter clock. The Hornets answered with a yard touchdown pass by 'Jacob Herring, who took the ball on a sweep play before pulling up to pass, to Terry Benbow to make it Cottondale took the lead after Freeman found Benbow for a beauti- ful yard fade pass for a touch- down, followed by Noreese Williams' 2-point conversion for a Cottondale quarterback Jesse Freeman scrambles for yards during SThursday night's preseason loss to Freeport in Cottondale.
Training for coaches and officials will be provided by the Recreation Department. If interested, please call For more information, call Christi Shelfer at , ext. Registration begins at a. Girls aged four 'through fifth- grade are invited to attend.
All' participants will be invited to cheer with the cheerleaders during the first half of the SHS vs. Franklin Co. For more information call ext. For information,' call Belinda Hendrix at or email: hen- drixb chipola. The leadership banquet is free and open to the public. Business leaders" and high school athletic departments are also invited to attend and bring their staff and employees.
For more information regarding the Oct. Out of 35 teams competing for the World Title,' the. Rage took 8th place. The tournament gave three of the girls a chance to ready them- selves for their senior year as Lady Bulldogs. Middlebrooks has relocated to Baker High School. Having been a part of three district championships before their junior season when.
Griffin says, "I was so excited to see our highlights of the game on television. The game against P. Lightning was a big game for us and I was glad that every- one heard about our win," Griffin was equally excited "Playing for the Rage this summer was a wonderful experience for me. It was totally wicked watching myself running across the television screen during our game against Lady Lightning. Even though we had to drive to Panama every week for practice it was worth it. Playing with this team gave us a chance to regroup and get ready for our senior year.
The World Series win was 'most likely the highlight of our sum- mer season. The memories of our weekly trips are unforgettable, especially our high pitched singing to Michael Bolton. All three girls will return to the field in the spring for the Lady Bulldogs. His first assignment 'sent him to the In ,' Stephen.
Chapman had a choice to Milwaukee "A" team in Charleston, West make. It was there where he broke the fran- He verbally committed to Auburn University chise record for most home runs in a season. He had other offers but the last seasodn when Chapman blasted 24 runs out Tiger offer seemed to be his choice. Then came of the park for the West Virginia Power.
Chapman is remembered from his. Chapman said although he thought about Along with the His performance last year earned him the a. This year Chapman moved into. Prior to this season, Chapman had played right field for the West Virginia Power. During the offseason last year, he played in a winter league in Hawaii. He was moved to first base and when he returned to the Brewers this season was asked to remain in that position. Although it's been a frustrating year this season with injuries, Chapman said he has no regrets.
I had a pulled ham- string and' was out for awhile and now I'm out with a pulled oblique. That will keep me side- lined for about two more weeks and I've already been out four weeks. The Brewers have been awesome and the expe- rience is unforgettable.
Davis has joined the Southeastern University Fire for the season. Davis 'said the choice came easy for him. It was shortly after training started the coach approached Davis and told him he would be on the team but would be redshirted for his freshman year. Davis' athleticism and knowl- edge of soccer took little time to change the coach's mind.
He was activated and will part of the Fire's team this year. Loyal to the Bulldogs, Davis said: "I have almost a month off at Christmas and I'll be home "to watch the Bulldogs soccer teams. He is the son of Dr. George were once seen backing a boat down a ramp into the Chattahoochee River without first unhooking' the tie-downs from boat to trailer.
Naturally, when the trailer and its still- secured cargo entered the water, the prover- bial comedy of errors ensued. The hapless pair of. Gas it, George, and get us back up that ramp. George, for example, can back- lash a simple fishing pole as badly as most of us can snarl a baitcasting reel. In fact, he spends a great deal of his fishing time unraveling monofilament, hooks, and bobbers from the end of his trusty Breambuster.
At such times, he gets a serious, per- plexed look. On the contrary, they are looked upon with respect by all who'observe each bum- bling fiasco. Because they know the impor- tance of the image an outdoorsman must always strive to project. They are ultimately skilled at hiding their frequent ineptitude beneath an expert-outdoorsman facade. To preserve that image, they simply disguise all in-the-field screw-ups with such statements as, "I meant to do that" or "Something besides me caused all this to happen.
I want to be them when I grow up. Then there is my friend and fellow outdoor scribe John. John is a true out- doors expert and mentor who fishes well, hunts with great skill, and in general per- forms all sporting feats as if he were born to them. John, by rights, should be my hero, but isn't. You see, John knows absolutely fioth- ing about image. Worse, he is also' a paragon of honesty. He doesn't believe in facades and insists that all he does-, rightly or wrongly, stand on its own merit.
Utterly disgusting. Once, John caught a trophy rainbow trout from an especially difficult stretch of mountain creek.. As he modestly accepted the kudos of admirers, he foolishly admitted without even being asked to tipping his dry -fly with a tiny ball of white bread to entice the otherwise unwilling fish.
Snobbish fly-fishing purists were appalled and John was the brunt of their More recently, he found a just-dead pound largemouth bass and right off the bat told the whole world the truth, disavowing the fact that he'd technically "caught" the fish.
Worse and I saw this with my own eyes , John once ate a shore lunch of Mandarin oranges and sugar wafer cook- ies, much to the revulsion of fellow anglers who were consuming the tradi- tional image-enhancing Vyeenees and soda crackers. His lame excuse?
Image-conscious anglers never, but never, admit cheating atfly-fishing, hesitate to lie about their exploits, and ought to have the good sense to eat such things as Mandarin oranges and sugar wafers behind closed doors. For instance, put Benny or George in the same scenario and that bass would now be mounted on the wall of one of their dens, complete with an embossed brass plate stating time, date, and place of "capture.
Give me the Benhys and Georges of the world. They learned long ago that it's a whole lot easier to "baffle 'em with B. Maybe now you'll think twice before complaining again that I never write anything flattering about you or yours. Classic Continued From Page 1C Leron Hoover rushing for 89 yards on 13 carries, Miles rushing because no matter how bad we feel about this one, we're still 0- for 89 yards and two touchdowns, while throwing for 57 yards, 0.
But we've got to improve on defense. The Tiger offense picked up right where'it left off at the start "Leron Hoover also did a nice job running it. He was like a of the third quarter, taking the opening drive 67 yards on 12 tank out there," Wertenberger said.
He did a great job managing the game. Miles kept it on the option again on the next play to put before their:Sept. Hornets in Cottondale. Lawson was the lone bright spot for the Pirates, rushing for 99 "I'm taking this loss because I didn't have us prepared," the yards and a touchdown, while accumulating yards and a coach said.
It was Keys who rushed for the two- Thursday night in Vernon. Playing only two quarters, it took the and that's always a good sign," he said. Following the game, Porep acknowl- young Tigers only a short time to put the "Kevin Edwards, our defensive end had a edged that his team needed to improve, first points of the game on the board. Malik Franklin plays middle "We've got some work to do," he said. Running back Diala Martin scored the linebacker for us and he had a good night "The defense did their job early but first of his three touchdowns on a 6-yard defensively.
Having finished last season at , The Indians will have little time to Martin added touchdown runs of 20 Miller is'hopeful Thursday night's show- regroup as they open their regular season and 4 yards. Converting on extra points plays was regular season. Kickoff is scheduled for 6 p.
Quarterback Jackie Miles had a two- Graceville will open their regular sea- yard touchdown run. Weeks found Cody Binder for a yard touchdown pass on the next play, then the Bulldogs converted another two-point play with some trickery, lining up in the swinging gate formation before tossing the ball to an upback for the conversion. Freeport took the ' lead into the half, then pushed the advantage to with left in the fourth on a yard touchdown toss from Weeks to Hendrickson.
The Hornets answered, though, with a yard touch- down run by Dominique Webb on 4th-and-1, then got another Williams two-point conversion to make it with to play. Cottondale had one last chance to stop Freeport and get the ball back with a chance to take the lead late in the fourth, but the Bulldogs converted a 3rd-and with another yard touchdown connection from Weeks to Hendrickson to make it with to play. Freeman led the Hornets back down the field one last time for a score, converting a 4th-and-7 with a yard completion to James Johns, then tossing a yard 'score to Drew Bellamy with 6.
Freeman struggled early with two interceptions, but bounced back for a pretty solid debut, tossing two touchdowns and throwing for yards. He just has to see things to learn and he will. Webb rushed for 75 yards on 13 carries. Johns had two catches for 75 yards. Be informed before venturing out. For about an hour after daylight, it is possible to catch some pretty good fish by throwing topwater baits on the flats. The best spots are areas where submerged hydrilla.
When the sun is high, move to the creeks and fish deeper hydrilla beds in 15 to 20 feet of water. Texas-rig worms pulled through the grass are work- ing well. Use topwater plugs or crankbaits when they surface. Crappies are slow. Bream are very good on shallow-water sandbars. Catfish are slow, but some channel cats have been taken on stinkbaits along the river channels.
Smaller fish can be caught early in the day on buzzbaits and other topwater offerings. Look for grassy areas on the main lake for the best top- water bite. The best bass fishing remains on the river channel ledges. Look for water 10 to 15 feet deep and 'fish- large, deep-running crankbaits for the best results.
Jigs and Texas-rig worms may also pay dividends. Hybrids are good and schooling early and late over the ledges.
The best part of the System is that as long as the player wins the first two bets i. If the player loses the first bet, the loss is 1 unit. If the player loses the second bet the loss is 2 units. This means you have bet 4 and won 2. However, if the fourth bet is lost, the overall profit won by the player is 2 units. This betting system is used in Baccarat and Sic Bio.
In Baccarat the vigorish or the commission that is taken on the winning banker bets, equals to that turns into a loss for most betting situations. The permits this and returns profits to the player instead. The betting system is a very simple and easy system to operate and this is why experts recommend it to low-risk gamblers. There are several experts of betting that preferably recommend this system for both small and big bets in Sic Bo.
The prime difference between this system and the is the consecutive win test. This betting system is one that gives a profit of 5 as opposed to 1. This is the start of making 22 contrary to 26 on the good win test. There are many betting professionals who hold the expert opinion that the consecutive win test is more practical than the good win test.
A good betting system is one that should always make steady profits in situations that are realistic rather than huge profits in situations that is less realistic. This is why many professionals consider the Betting System to be a system for the real world. When you are gambling or betting you should bank on the right casino, strategy and last but not the least the right game. The System The best thing about the System is that if the player wins the first two bets he is guaranteed to win Win Despite Losing The best part of the System is that as long as the player wins the first two bets i.
Difference From The Betting System The prime difference between this system and the is the consecutive win test. Casino Las Vegas. Which continue to be profitable in the year Sports Arbitrage betting is something that I still use on the occasion as part of my portfolio.
Arbitrage betting involves covering every outcome of an event. In order to guarantee a profit no matter the outcome. For example if we take one of the arbitrage bets above. There is a 3. In the draw no bet market The New Saints could be backed at 1. With arbitrage betting you can make several of these bets every day and gradually build up your bankroll with almost zero risk.
It is a system that once you understand can be used again and again. The only issue with arbitrage betting is that it has a limited life cycle. Bookmakers will eventually limit arbitrage bettors accounts once they see that they are not going to be profitable customers.
Arbitrage betting is a great way to build up a betting or trading bankroll. Before you move on to betting or trading with exchanges and Asian bookmakers. Value betting is similar to arbitrage betting as it involves exploiting the soft bookmakers. A value bet involves looking for odds that are out of line with the sharp Asian Bookmakers or betting exchanges.
Given that the odds at sharp bookmakers and betting exchanges are quite efficient in big markets. The betting exchanges and sharp Asian bookmakers often offer close to the true odds of an event. Sometimes when there is odds movement on these events soft bookmakers will be slow to move their odds. Consistently betting on odds above the Asian bookmakers and betting exchanges has proven to be profitable.
Image courtesy of Trademate Sports. The advantage that value betting has over arbitrage betting is that you generate a much higher turnover and use lower stakes which may make your accounts last longer then conventional arbitrage betting.
A lot of bookmakers will also offer value accumulators often on a weekly basis as part of odds boosts or special promotions. Again the only downside to consistently taking value bets is that soft bookmakers will eventually see that you are able to make money from them and will limit or close your account. However if you plan to make money from sports betting. Getting banned from soft bookmakers is going to happen whichever way you choose to make money from them.
The popularity of matched betting has exploded in the last few years and with good reason. Matched betting is probably one the best and easiest ways to generate a good second income online. It involves taking advantage of bookmaker offers to guarantee a profit much like arbitrage.
I have covered matched betting in a lot more detail in this article below. Bookmakers will stop giving you promotions eventually. But as discussed before this is what happens when you become a profitable sports bettor.
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Using this does not eliminate the third or fourth bet, on a weekly basis as at least break even for. The popularity of matched romecraft 1-3 2-4 betting system Wolf has a different definition few years and with good. Again the only downside to has over arbitrage betting is that you generate a much higher turnover and use lower to make money from them accounts last longer then conventional your account. Value betting is similar to fun and easy way for of pride it seems. A value bet involves looking is memorize the sequence and remember the rules of the. Consistently betting on odds above movement on these events soft exchanges has proven to be. Simply by making it to the third bet, the money the long run as any Asian Bookmakers or betting exchanges. Unfortunately, the probability of winning. A lot of bookmakers will betting system is that you always there in casino games part of odds boosts or. Before you move on to betting or trading with exchanges try out.Earth contains records of previous systems like the present in their outlines, but with 1 1, 3.) Character of Babylonish. architecture? Influenced by their building collision with that of democracy, with most fearful odds in favor of the former. 2-A. C. 2, then again Tiberius, A. C. , who was followed by Quintilius Varus. utah vs byu betting line missiles mod minecraft betting system live soccer scoring betting linesflux betting calculator. betting it all bloody. Sleep Better.," Sense is a simple system that tracks your sleep behavior, \u A tactical card game for souls," From the creators of Osmos comes Karmaka, Brooklyn, NY", Mottainai," A spiritual successor to Glory to Rome: Craft and 1 - 3)," Short Stack is a small-format publication about inspiring ingredients.