Because many of the British colonists, such as the Puritans and Congregationalists , were fleeing religious persecution by the Church of England, much of early American religious culture exhibited the more extreme anti-Catholic bias of these Protestant denominations. Monsignor John Tracy Ellis wrote that a "universal anti-Catholic bias was brought to Jamestown in and vigorously cultivated in all the thirteen colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia.
Monsignor Ellis noted that a common hatred of the Roman Catholic Church could unite Anglican clerics and Puritan ministers despite their differences and conflicts. Some of America's Founding Fathers held anti-clerical beliefs. For example, in , John Jay urged the New York Legislature to require office-holders to renounce foreign authorities "in all matters ecclesiastical as well as civil. He is always in alliance with the despot , abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own.
Some states devised loyalty oaths designed to exclude Catholics from state and local office. Constitution by prominent American Catholics like Charles Carroll of Carrollton , the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence, and his second cousins, Bishop John Carroll and Daniel Carroll , allowed Roman Catholics to be included in the constitutional protections of civil and religious liberty.
Anti-Catholic animus in the United States reached a peak in the 19th century when the Protestant population became alarmed by the influx of Catholic immigrants. Some American Protestants, having an increased interest in prophecies regarding the end of time, claimed that the Catholic Church was the Whore of Babylon in the Book of Revelation.
The nativist movement found expression in a national political movement called the Know-Nothing Party of the s, which unsuccessfully ran former president Millard Fillmore as its presidential candidate in The founder of the Know-Nothing movement, Lewis C. Levin , based his political career entirely on anti-Catholicism, and served three terms in the U. House of Representatives — , after which he campaigned for Fillmore and other "nativist" candidates.
After many states passed constitutional provisions, called " Blaine Amendments , forbidding tax money be used to fund parochial schools. Anti-Catholicism was widespread in the s; anti-Catholics, including the Ku Klux Klan, believed that Catholicism was incompatible with democracy and that parochial schools encouraged separatism and kept Catholics from becoming loyal Americans.
The Catholics responded to such prejudices by repeatedly asserting their rights as American citizens and by arguing that they, not the nativists anti-Catholics , were true patriots since they believed in the right to freedom of religion. The presidential campaign of Al Smith was a rallying point for the Klan and the tide of anti-Catholicism in the U.
Two weeks after it opened, the Ku Klux Klan burned a cross in front of the church. The law unofficially became known as the Oregon School Law. The citizens' initiative was primarily aimed at eliminating parochial schools , including Catholic schools. In Pierce v. Society of Sisters , the United States Supreme Court declared the Oregon's Compulsory Education Act unconstitutional in a ruling that has been called "the Magna Carta of the parochial school system.
In December , Ed Mechmann, the director of public policy at the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York noted that the new regulations from the New York State Education Department would "give local school boards virtually unlimited power over private religious schools. There is no protection against government officials who are hostile to religious schools or who just want to eliminate the competition. In , Al Smith became the first Roman Catholic to gain a major party's nomination for president, and his religion became an issue during the campaign.
Many Protestants feared that Smith would take orders from church leaders in Rome in making decisions affecting the country. A key factor that hurt John F. Kennedy in his campaign for the presidency of the United States was the widespread prejudice against his Roman Catholic religion; some Protestants , including Norman Vincent Peale , believed that, if he were elected president, Kennedy would have to take orders from the pope in Rome. I am the Democratic Party's candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic.
I do not speak for my Church on public matters — and the Church does not speak for me. Kennedy also raised the question of whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic.
Kennedy went on to win the national popular vote over Richard Nixon by just one tenth of one percentage point 0. In the electoral college , Kennedy's victory was larger, as he took electoral votes to Nixon's were needed to win. The New York Times , summarizing the discussion late in November, spoke of a "narrow consensus" among the experts that Kennedy had won more than he lost as a result of his Catholicism,  as Catholics flocked to Kennedy to demonstrate their group solidarity in demanding political equality.
In , the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops argued that the Obama Administration put an undue burden upon Catholics and forced them to violate their right to freedom of religion as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Another concern relating to the Catholic Church and politics in the United States is the freedom to provide church services to illegally undocumented immigrants as most hail from predominantly Roman Catholic nations.
Holy See—United States relations resumed in The Christian Scientists have specific protections relating to their beliefs on refusing medical care and the use of prayer. Historically, the Latter Day Saint movement , which is often called Mormonism , has been the victim of religious violence beginning with reports by founder Joseph Smith immediately after his First Vision  and continuing as the movement grew and migrated from its inception in western New York to Ohio , Missouri , and Illinois.
The violence culminated when Smith was assassinated by a mob of men in Carthage Jail in Joseph Smith had surrendered himself previously to the authorities, who failed to protect him. As a result of the violence they were faced with in the East , the Mormon pioneers , led by Brigham Young , migrated westwards and eventually founded Salt Lake City , and many other communities along the Mormon Corridor.
Smith and his followers experienced relatively low levels of persecution in New York and Ohio,  [ clarification needed ] although one incident involved church members being tarred and feathered. Smith declared the area around Independence, Missouri to be the site of Zion , inspiring a massive influx of Mormon converts.
Locals, alarmed by rumors of the strange, new religion including rumors of polygamy , [ citation needed ] attempted to drive the Mormons out. Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the state The Mormons quickly expanded the town and renamed it Nauvoo , which was one of the largest cities in Illinois at the time.
After a succession crisis , most of the Mormons united under Brigham Young , who organized an evacuation from Nauvoo and from the United States itself after the federal government refused to protect the Mormons. Young immediately petitioned for the addition of the State of Deseret , but the federal government declined. Instead, Congress carved out the much smaller Utah Territory.
Over the next 46 years, several actions of the federal government were directed at Mormons, specifically to curtail the practice of polygamy and to reduce their political and economic power. With the concept of plural marriage , from to the Mormon faith allowed its members to practice polygamy ; after this was limited to polygyny one man could have several wives.
The notion of polygamy was not only generally disdained by most of Joseph Smith's contemporaries,  it is also contrary to the traditional Christian understanding of marriage. In the case of Reynolds v. United States , the U. When their appeals to the courts and lawmakers were exhausted and once church leaders were satisfied that God had accepted what they saw as their sacrifice for the principle, the prophet leader of the church announced that he had received inspiration that God had accepted their obedience and rescinded the commandment for plural marriage.
In , an official declaration was issued by the church prohibiting further plural marriages. Aside from the general issues in the relations between Europeans and Native Americans since the initial European colonization of the Americas , there has been a historic suppression of Native American religions as well as some current charges of religious discrimination against Native Americans by the U.
With the practice of the Americanization of Native Americans , Native American children were sent to Christian boarding schools where they were forced to worship as Christians and traditional customs were banned. Continuing charges of religious discrimination have largely centered on the eagle feather law , the use of ceremonial peyote , and the repatriation of Native American human remains and cultural and religious objects:.
A study at the University of Minnesota showed atheists to be the most distrusted minority among Americans. In the study, sociologists Penny Edgell, Joseph Gerties and Douglas Hartmann conducted a survey of American public opinion on attitudes towards different groups. The study also showed that atheists have lower employment prospects. Several private organizations, the most notable being the Boy Scouts of America , do not allow atheist members.
Grumet , Supreme Court Justice David Souter wrote in the opinion for the Court that: "government should not prefer one religion to another, or religion to irreligion". Board of Education established that "neither a state nor the Federal Government can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another".
This applies the Establishment Clause to the states as well as the federal government. Civil rights cases are typically brought in federal courts, so such state provisions are mainly of symbolic importance. Although the decision was stayed pending the outcome of an appeal, there was the prospect that the pledge would cease to be legally usable without modification in schools in the western United States , over which the Ninth Circuit has jurisdiction.
This resulted in political furor, and both houses of Congress passed resolutions condemning the decision, unanimously. In , John Miller of the Wall Street Journal noted that the term '"freedom of religion" was recently restored to US immigrant naturalization tests and study booklets.
It had previously been changed to the more limited "freedom of worship. In , Kamala Harris and others signed a brief submitted to the Supreme Court that "Rights to the free exercise of religious beliefs [ Free exercise rights have thus also been understood as personal, relating only to individual believers and to a limited class of associations comprising or representing them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Religious discrimination Religious censorship Separation of church and state Anti-clericalism School prayer Catholic priests in public office Confessionalism Theocracy. State religion Secular state Confessional state Atheist state. Status by country. Religious persecution. Main article: Wisconsin v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Main article: Masterpiece Cakeshop v.
Colorado Civil Rights Commission. See also: Sherbert v. Main article: General Order No. Main article: Anti-Mormonism. Further information: Discrimination against atheists in the United States. Library of Congress. Retrieved Auflage, Band III , col. Auflage, Band VI , col. A neglected issue. Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg.
Washington Post. Retrieved 30 November Orange County Department of Probation , F. New York July 29, Archived from the original on April 28, Retrieved 30 March Norskov Olsen United States Code. State of Missouri. Archived from the original on These Also Believe. Supreme Court of the United States.
Oregon Bureau of Labor and Industries". State Constitutions". Ontario consultants on religious tolerance. Hall — Cengage Learning. July City of Euless Findlaw. New York Times. Retrieved 9 February Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness". Constitution Article VI Officers — www. Disqualifications — Hosted By Tncrimlaw". No religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office, or public trust, in this State; nor shall any one be excluded from holding office on account of his religious sentiments, provided he acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being.
Archived from the original on 23 August — via Associated Press. Oxford University Press. American Anti-Catholicism and its Literature. By David Gibson. HarperCollins : Published American Catholicism. City: University of Chicago P.
The Oxford History of the American People. New York City: Mentor. Urban Religion and the Second Great Awakening. This Rock. Catholic Answers. Archived at the Wayback Machine , blaineamendments. NO: Choice forces educators to improve".
The Atlanta Constitution-Journal. The American Irish: a political and social portrait. Univ of Massachusetts Press. Ku Klux Klan shrine of the little flower. Shrine of the Little Flower. Judicial Watch. American Rhetoric. However, historian Richard Lyman Bushman states that this hypothesis failed, partly because Eli was John Johnson's brother, not his son. Bushman feels a more probable motivation is recorded by Symonds Ryder, a participant in the event, who felt Smith was plotting to take property from members of the community and a company of citizens violently warned Smith that they would not accept those actions.
Kessinger Publishing. University of Northern Colorado. October 27, Archived from the original on April 5, Bagley, Will Blood of the Prophets. University of Oklahoma Press. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
Page Deseret Book : — Republican Party Platform, Digital History. Fundamental Principles of Family Law. Hein Publishing. American Sociological Review. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Archived from the original PDF on January 11, Retrieved April 22, Free Inquiry. Til you can also, and how to counter strike: global offensive console: go y.
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