Decoupling the sensing element from the electronics is convenient from both a technology and regulatory perspective. Benign endogenous bacteria with engineered genetic circuits could, in principle, be designed and optimized to detect virtually any small molecule or protein including specific biomarkers for measuring metabolism, detecting GI pathologies, or profiling microbiome composition.
Furthermore, it may be possible to multiplex various bacterial sensors on to one ingestible device to measure panels of molecules simultaneously. These data may provide insight into gut health from various perspectives. Decoupling the sensing element from the electronic components can expedite the regulatory approval of these devices as diagnostics for many disease states. Once the initial device is approved in humans, this technology could serve as a predicate device for subsequent technologies using the k regulatory pathway.
As such, the era of innovations in genetic engineering has now interfaced with endoradiosonde. In the near future, it may be possible to engineer bacterial sensors to measure the concentrate of small molecule metabolites or other markers for metabolic disease or gut health. Early diagnosis may improve the ability to intervene, treat, and manage these diseases.
Microbial-electronic sensors could also be potentially integrated with on-board therapeutic interventions such as drug delivery reservoirs. The present device uses custom electronic circuits designed and fabricated using off-the-shelf components such as batteries, printed circuit boards, and encapsulation materials. The materials selection process for device components is often motivated by convenience.
However, the lack of application-specific materials can subject prospective patients to significant risk associated with device retention or acute toxicity. Next-generation edible electronics may benefit from novel components such as biocompatible batteries, flexible electronics, and biodegradable encapsulation materials 7 - 9. Edible electronic devices that use flexible, degradable, and biocompatible materials may reduce risk, expedite regulatory approval, and accelerate adoption.
Combining advances in synthetic biology with those in biocompatible, biodegradable, and flexible electronics could create a new era in the design of edible electronic devices to diagnose and treat many diseases in the gut and beyond. Conflicts of Interest: The author has no conflicts of interest to declare. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr v. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. Christopher J. Bettinger 1, 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Corresponding author. Correspondence to: Professor Christopher J. Email: ude. Received Nov 9; Accepted Nov Copyright Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition. All rights reserved. Introduction to edible electronics Edible electronic devices are orally deployable electrified medical devices that have great potential to diagnose and treat many types of diseases. Historical perspective of edible electronic devices Era of innovations in circuit design It is important to contextualize the recent device by first gaining a historic perspective of this class of medical devices.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Era of innovations in systems integration and miniaturization Advances in systems integration enabled the next phase of innovation in edible electronic devices. Current work: ingestible sensors that use synthetic biology to detect bleeding Bleeding in the GI tract is a dangerous and impactful condition that can benefit from early detection.
Figure 2. The future of edible electronic sensors Mimee et al. Footnotes Conflicts of Interest: The author has no conflicts of interest to declare. References 1. Endoradiosonde for bleeding detection. Med Electron Biol Eng ; 2 The ingestible thermal monitoring system. Wireless capsule endoscopy. Nature ; An ingestible sensor for measuring medication adherence. An ingestible bacterial-electronic system to monitor gastrointestinal health. Science ; Nucleic Acids Res ; 35 :e Biologically derived melanin electrodes in aqueous sodium-ion energy storage devices.
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